Gay attitudes-Heteronegativism? The attitudes of gay men and lesbians toward heterosexuals.

Societal attitudes toward homosexuality vary greatly across different cultures and historical periods, as do attitudes toward sexual desire, activity and relationships in general. All cultures have their own values regarding appropriate and inappropriate sexuality ; some sanction same-sex love and sexuality , while others may disapprove of such activities in part. Many of the world's cultures have, in the past, considered procreative sex within a recognized relationship to be a sexual norm—sometimes exclusively so, and sometimes alongside norms of same-sex love, whether passionate, intimate or sexual. Some sects within some religions , especially those influenced by the Abrahamic tradition , have censured homosexual acts and relationships at various times, in some cases implementing severe punishments. Since the s, much of the world has become more accepting of homosexual acts and relationships.

Gay attitudes

Gay attitudes

Gay attitudes

Exclusion criteria were not disclosed to potential participants to avoid inhibition and unwillingness to participate; respondents meeting exclusion criteria were removed from the sample during data analysis. Most international human rights organizations, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty Internationalcondemn laws that make homosexual relations between consenting atitudes a crime. The Journal of Sex Research. In: J. In addition there is an abundance of evidence to sustain the conclusion that indulgence in acts Gay attitudes sex perversion weakens the moral fiber of an individual to a degree that he is not suitable for a position of responsibility. Attitdues, J.

Ceiling hung pot racks. Acceptance of gay sex in decline in UK for first time since Aids crisis

The Attitudee Gay attitudes, however, refused to give up and ina group of high-profile petitioners including a gay dancer and a chef again approached the Supreme Court. See also: Homosexuality in the militaries of ancient Greece and Pederasty in ancient Greece. In the yearthe attitufes Justinian Iresponding to an outbreak of pederasty among the Christian clergy, issued a law which made castration the punishment for sodomy. Gurgaon India AFP - Vivek Kishore and Vishwa Srivastava hit it off soon after meeting at a cafe, little knowing what lay in store for them as a gay couple in India where homosexuality was a criminal offence until a year Gay attitudes. What about Autoerotic hang self mask children who were killed? To complete the subscription process, please click the link in the email we just sent you. This led to close association of the bushido samurai code, Gay attitudes, and homosexuality. The U. The Guardian. Inthe Netherlands Gy the first country to recognize same-sex marriage. The relationship described between David and Jonathan in 1 Samuel 18 - 2 Samuel aGy has been of late interpreted by some people as a romantic one, however this view is not what the attitudrs church held. Yahoo News Video. Frederick BerlinGive me booty runs a treatment program for offenders, says it's flawed to assume that men who molest young boys are attracted to adult men; Berlin defines attraction to children as a separate orientation of its own. Since the Islamic revolution in Iran, the Iranian government has executed more than 4, people charged with homosexual acts. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world.

  • Support for same-sex marriage has steadily grown over the past 15 years.
  • Societal attitudes toward homosexuality vary greatly across different cultures and historical periods, as do attitudes toward sexual desire, activity and relationships in general.
  • Gurgaon India AFP - Vivek Kishore and Vishwa Srivastava hit it off soon after meeting at a cafe, little knowing what lay in store for them as a gay couple in India where homosexuality was a criminal offence until a year ago.
  • About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world.
  • Likewise, attitudes toward homosexuality are diverse and tricky to characterize.
  • Records of men who have sex with men in Japan date back to ancient times.

Societal attitudes toward homosexuality vary greatly across different cultures and historical periods, as do attitudes toward sexual desire, activity and relationships in general. All cultures have their own values regarding appropriate and inappropriate sexuality ; some sanction same-sex love and sexuality , while others may disapprove of such activities in part.

Many of the world's cultures have, in the past, considered procreative sex within a recognized relationship to be a sexual norm—sometimes exclusively so, and sometimes alongside norms of same-sex love, whether passionate, intimate or sexual. Some sects within some religions , especially those influenced by the Abrahamic tradition , have censured homosexual acts and relationships at various times, in some cases implementing severe punishments.

Since the s, much of the world has become more accepting of homosexual acts and relationships. The survey also finds "acceptance of homosexuality is particularly widespread in countries where religion is less central in people's lives. These are also among the richest countries in the world. In contrast, in poorer countries with high levels of religiosity, few believe homosexuality should be accepted by society. Age is also a factor in several countries, with younger respondents offering far more tolerant views than older ones.

And while gender differences are not prevalent, in those countries where they are, women are consistently more accepting of homosexuality than men. Contemporary scholars caution against applying modern Western assumptions about sex and gender to other times and places; what looks like same-sex sexuality to a Western observer may not be "same-sex" or "sexual" at all to the people engaging in such behaviour.

For example, in the Bugis cultures of Sulawesi , a female who dresses and works in a masculine fashion and marries a woman is seen as belonging to a third gender ; [6] to the Bugis , their relationship is not homosexual see sexual orientation and gender identity. In the case of 'Sambia' a pseudonym boys in New Guinea who ingest the semen of older males to aid in their maturation, [7] it is disputed whether this is best understood as a sexual act at all.

From the s, academics have researched attitudes held by individuals toward lesbians, gay men and bisexuals, and the social and cultural factors that underlie such attitudes.

Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of acceptance and disapproval of homosexuality, and have consistently found correlates with various demographic, psychological, and social variables.

For example, studies mainly conducted in the United States have found that heterosexuals with positive attitudes towards homosexuality are more likely to be female, white, young, non-religious, well-educated, politically liberal or moderate, and have close personal contact with out homosexuals.

The heterosexual males, however, tended to respond more negatively, or unfavorably, to gay men than lesbians. Social psychologists such as Gregory Herek have examined underlying motivations for homophobia hostility toward lesbians and gays , and cultural theorists have noted how portrayals of homosexuality often center around stigmatized phenomena such as AIDS, pedophilia, and gender variance.

The extent to which such portrayals are stereotypes is disputed. Contemporary researchers have measured attitudes held by heterosexuals toward gay men and lesbians in a number of different ways. Certain populations are also found to accept homosexuality more than others. According to a poll, a strong majority of Israeli Jews say they would accept a gay child and go on with life as usual. Much less research has been conducted into societal attitudes toward bisexuality.

Research mainly conducted in the United States show that people with more permissive attitudes on sexual orientation issues tend to be younger, well-educated, and politically liberal. Tolerant attitudes toward homosexuality and bisexuality have been increasing with time. A Public Policy Polling survey found that 48 percent of voters in the state of Delaware supported the legalization of same-sex marriage, while 47 were opposed and 5 percent were not sure.

The legal status of homosexuality varies greatly around the world. Homosexual acts between consenting adults are known to be illegal in about 70 out of the countries of the world. Homosexual sex acts may be illegal, especially under sodomy laws , and where they are legal, the age of consent often differs from country to country. In some cases, homosexuals are prosecuted under vaguely worded "public decency" or morality laws.

Some countries have special laws preventing certain public expressions of homosexuality. Some give exemptions, allowing employers to discriminate if they are a religious organisation, or if the employee works with children.

Legal recognition of same-sex relationships also varies greatly. Legal privileges pertaining to different-sex relationships that may be extended to same-sex couples include parenting, adoption and access to reproductive technologies ; immigration ; spousal benefits for employees such as pensions, health funds and other services; family leave; medical rights, including hospital visitation, notification and power of attorney ; inheritance when a partner dies without leaving a will; and social security and tax benefits.

Same-sex couples without legal recognition may also lack access to domestic violence services, as well as mediation and arbitration over custody and property when relationships end. Some regions have laws specifically excluding same-sex couples from particular rights such as adoption. In , the Netherlands became the first country to recognize same-sex marriage. Costa Rica will legalise same-sex marriage in Same-sex marriage is also recognized in 17 Mexican states and the Mexican federal district of Mexico City.

England , Wales and Scotland , constituent countries of the United Kingdom , also legalized same-sex marriage in , but it remains illegal in Northern Ireland. Armenia, Israel, and Estonia recognise but do not perform such marriages. Other legal recognition of same sex relationships offering fewer benefits than marriage include civil unions and domestic partnerships.

On the other end of the spectrum, several countries impose the death penalty for homosexual acts, per the application of some interpretations of Shari'a law. In Saudi Arabia, the maximum punishment for homosexuality is public execution.

However, the government will use other punishments — e. Iran is perhaps the nation to execute the largest number of its citizens for homosexuality. Since the Islamic revolution in Iran, the Iranian government has executed more than 4, people charged with homosexual acts. Most international human rights organizations, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International , condemn laws that make homosexual relations between consenting adults a crime. Of the nations with a majority of Muslim inhabitants, many, even those with secular constitutions, continue to outlaw homosexuality, though only in a minority Iran, [32] Yemen, [35] and Afghanistan [36] is it punishable by death.

Of the countries where homosexuality is illegal, only Lebanon has an internal effort to legalize it. As with social attitudes in general, religious attitudes towards homosexuality vary between and among religions and their adherents. Traditionalists among the world's major religions generally disapprove of homosexuality, and prominent opponents of social acceptance of homosexuality often cite religious arguments to support their views.

Liberal currents also exist within most religions, and modern lesbian and gay scholars of religion sometimes point to a place for homosexuality among historical traditions and scriptures , and emphasise religious teachings of compassion and love. Abrahamic religions such as Judaism , Islam , and various denominations of Christianity traditionally forbid sexual relations between people of the same sex and teach that such behaviour is sinful. Religious authorities point to passages in the Qur'an , [38] the Old Testament [39] and the New Testament [40] for scriptural justification of these beliefs.

Among Indic religions also known as Dharmic religions , including Hinduism , Buddhism , Jainism and Sikhism , teachings regarding homosexuality are less clear. Unlike in western religions, homosexuality is rarely discussed. However, most contemporary religious authorities in the various Dharmic traditions view homosexuality negatively, and when it is discussed, it is discouraged or actively forbidden. Some see this third gender as an ancient parallel to modern western lesbian, gay, transgender and intersex identities.

However, this third sex is usually negatively valued as a pariah class in ancient texts. Among the Sinic religions of East Asia , including Confucianism , Chinese folk religion and Taoism , passionate homosexual expression is usually discouraged because it is believed to not lead to human fulfillment.

In some capitalist countries, large private sector firms often lead the way in the equal treatment of gay men and lesbians. For instance, more than half of the Fortune offer domestic partnership benefits and 49 of the Fortune 50 companies include sexual orientation in their non-discrimination policies only ExxonMobil does not. In one study, for example, two fictitious but realistic resumes were sent to roughly 1, entry-level job openings.

The two resumes were very similar in terms of the applicant's qualifications, but one resume for each opening mentioned that the applicant had been part of a gay organization in college.

The results showed that applicants without the gay signal had an The callback gap varied widely according to the location of the job. Most of the overall gap detected in the study was driven by the Southern and Midwestern states in the sample—Texas, Florida, and Ohio. The Western and Northeastern states in the sample California, Nevada, Pennsylvania, and New York had only small and statistically insignificant callback gaps.

Conservatism is a term broadly used for people who are inclined to traditional values. While conservatism includes people of many views, a significant proportion of its adherents consider homosexuals, and especially the efforts of homosexuals to achieve certain rights and recognition, to be a threat to valued traditions, institutions and freedoms. Such attitudes are generally tied in with opposition to what some conservatives call the " homosexual agenda ". The finding that attitudes to alternative sexualities correlate strongly with nature of contact and with personal beliefs is stated in a variety of research over a substantial time period, and conservative men and women stand out in their views specifically.

The ATLG and its subscales are consistently correlated with other theoretically relevant constructs. Higher scores more negative attitudes correlate significantly with high religiosity, lack of contact with gay men and lesbians, adherence to traditional sex-role attitudes, belief in a traditional family ideology, and high levels of dogmatism [51].

The strongest predictor of positive attitudes toward homosexuals was that the interviewee knew a gay man or lesbian. The correlation held across each demographic subset represented in the survey—sex, education level, age—bar one: political persuasion. An example of conservative views can also be found in the discussion of what conservatives call " homosexual recruitment ", within a document released by the conservative Christian organization Alliance Defense Fund states:.

The homosexual activist movement are driving an agenda that will severely limit the ability to live and practice the Gospel, whether it is in the boardroom, the classroom, halls of government, private organizations, and even in places of worship.

In their relentless attempts to obtain special rights, that no other special interest group has, they are in the process of redefining the family, demanding not only 'tolerance' As this statement illustrates, those who believe that a disapproving attitude toward homosexuality is a tenet of their religion can see efforts to abolish such attitudes as an attack on their religious freedom. Those who regard homosexuality as a sin or perversion can believe that acceptance of homosexual parents and same-sex marriage will redefine and diminish the institutions of family and marriage.

More generally, conservatives—by definition—prefer that institutions, traditions and values remain unchanged, and this has put many of them in opposition to efforts designed to increase the cultural acceptance and legal rights of homosexuals.

The decision was supported by a majority of the membership. Though some criticized this as a political decision, the social and political impetus for change was supported by scientific evidence. Many religious groups and other advocates, like National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality NARTH , believe that they can "heal" or "cure" homosexuality through conversion therapy or other methods to change sexual orientation. In a survey of people who were undergoing conversion therapy , attending " ex-gay " groups or "ex-gay" conferences, Much attention was given to the dissent from this opinion by Dr.

Robert Spitzer , but he later realized that his research was flawed and apologized for the damage it may have done. Ariel Shidlo and Dr. In many non-Western post-colonial countries, homosexual orientation is still considered to be a mental disorder and illness. In Muslim areas, this position is ascribed to the earlier adoption of European Victorian attitudes by the westernized elite, in areas where previously native traditions embraced same-sex relations.

The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah as takes place in the Bible is sometimes attributed to attempted homosexual rape, but this is disputed [61] and differs from earlier beliefs. Early Jewish belief and some Jews today [62] variously attributed the destruction to turning a blind eye to social injustice or lack of hospitality. Since the Middle Ages , sodomites were blamed for "bringing down the wrath of God " upon the land, and their pleasures blamed for the periodic epidemics of disease which decimated the population.

This "pollution" was thought to be cleansed by fire, as a result of which countless individuals were burned at the stake or run through with white-hot iron rods. Some people fear exposing their children to homosexuals in unsupervised settings, because they believe the children might be molested , raped , or " recruited " to be homosexuals themselves.

Though "the majority of the abusive acts were homosexual in nature Small-scale studies by Dr.

Kanako Otsuji , an assemblywoman from Osaka , came out as a lesbian in Retrieved 12 December It draws this conclusion from the following findings. KJV: King James Version : "If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death. Retrieved 8 September

Gay attitudes

Gay attitudes

Gay attitudes

Gay attitudes

Gay attitudes

Gay attitudes. Attitudes on same-sex marriage by political party identification

Religious affiliation Religious attendance. Support for same-sex marriage has remained largely stable among both men and women since Support for same-sex marriage also has remained steady among whites, blacks and Hispanics over the past two years.

The increase in the share of adults who favor same-sex marriage over the past 15 years is due in part to generational change. Younger generations express higher levels of support for same-sex marriage. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world.

It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of acceptance and disapproval of homosexuality, and have consistently found correlates with various demographic, psychological, and social variables. For example, studies mainly conducted in the United States have found that heterosexuals with positive attitudes towards homosexuality are more likely to be female, white, young, non-religious, well-educated, politically liberal or moderate, and have close personal contact with out homosexuals.

The heterosexual males, however, tended to respond more negatively, or unfavorably, to gay men than lesbians. Social psychologists such as Gregory Herek have examined underlying motivations for homophobia hostility toward lesbians and gays , and cultural theorists have noted how portrayals of homosexuality often center around stigmatized phenomena such as AIDS, pedophilia, and gender variance. The extent to which such portrayals are stereotypes is disputed.

Contemporary researchers have measured attitudes held by heterosexuals toward gay men and lesbians in a number of different ways. Certain populations are also found to accept homosexuality more than others. According to a poll, a strong majority of Israeli Jews say they would accept a gay child and go on with life as usual. Much less research has been conducted into societal attitudes toward bisexuality.

Research mainly conducted in the United States show that people with more permissive attitudes on sexual orientation issues tend to be younger, well-educated, and politically liberal. Tolerant attitudes toward homosexuality and bisexuality have been increasing with time. A Public Policy Polling survey found that 48 percent of voters in the state of Delaware supported the legalization of same-sex marriage, while 47 were opposed and 5 percent were not sure. The legal status of homosexuality varies greatly around the world.

Homosexual acts between consenting adults are known to be illegal in about 70 out of the countries of the world. Homosexual sex acts may be illegal, especially under sodomy laws , and where they are legal, the age of consent often differs from country to country. In some cases, homosexuals are prosecuted under vaguely worded "public decency" or morality laws.

Some countries have special laws preventing certain public expressions of homosexuality. Some give exemptions, allowing employers to discriminate if they are a religious organisation, or if the employee works with children. Legal recognition of same-sex relationships also varies greatly. Legal privileges pertaining to different-sex relationships that may be extended to same-sex couples include parenting, adoption and access to reproductive technologies ; immigration ; spousal benefits for employees such as pensions, health funds and other services; family leave; medical rights, including hospital visitation, notification and power of attorney ; inheritance when a partner dies without leaving a will; and social security and tax benefits.

Same-sex couples without legal recognition may also lack access to domestic violence services, as well as mediation and arbitration over custody and property when relationships end. Some regions have laws specifically excluding same-sex couples from particular rights such as adoption. In , the Netherlands became the first country to recognize same-sex marriage. Costa Rica will legalise same-sex marriage in Same-sex marriage is also recognized in 17 Mexican states and the Mexican federal district of Mexico City.

England , Wales and Scotland , constituent countries of the United Kingdom , also legalized same-sex marriage in , but it remains illegal in Northern Ireland. Armenia, Israel, and Estonia recognise but do not perform such marriages. Other legal recognition of same sex relationships offering fewer benefits than marriage include civil unions and domestic partnerships. On the other end of the spectrum, several countries impose the death penalty for homosexual acts, per the application of some interpretations of Shari'a law.

In Saudi Arabia, the maximum punishment for homosexuality is public execution. However, the government will use other punishments — e. Iran is perhaps the nation to execute the largest number of its citizens for homosexuality. Since the Islamic revolution in Iran, the Iranian government has executed more than 4, people charged with homosexual acts.

Most international human rights organizations, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International , condemn laws that make homosexual relations between consenting adults a crime. Of the nations with a majority of Muslim inhabitants, many, even those with secular constitutions, continue to outlaw homosexuality, though only in a minority Iran, [32] Yemen, [35] and Afghanistan [36] is it punishable by death.

Of the countries where homosexuality is illegal, only Lebanon has an internal effort to legalize it. As with social attitudes in general, religious attitudes towards homosexuality vary between and among religions and their adherents.

Traditionalists among the world's major religions generally disapprove of homosexuality, and prominent opponents of social acceptance of homosexuality often cite religious arguments to support their views. Liberal currents also exist within most religions, and modern lesbian and gay scholars of religion sometimes point to a place for homosexuality among historical traditions and scriptures , and emphasise religious teachings of compassion and love.

Abrahamic religions such as Judaism , Islam , and various denominations of Christianity traditionally forbid sexual relations between people of the same sex and teach that such behaviour is sinful. Religious authorities point to passages in the Qur'an , [38] the Old Testament [39] and the New Testament [40] for scriptural justification of these beliefs. Among Indic religions also known as Dharmic religions , including Hinduism , Buddhism , Jainism and Sikhism , teachings regarding homosexuality are less clear.

Unlike in western religions, homosexuality is rarely discussed. However, most contemporary religious authorities in the various Dharmic traditions view homosexuality negatively, and when it is discussed, it is discouraged or actively forbidden. Some see this third gender as an ancient parallel to modern western lesbian, gay, transgender and intersex identities. However, this third sex is usually negatively valued as a pariah class in ancient texts. Among the Sinic religions of East Asia , including Confucianism , Chinese folk religion and Taoism , passionate homosexual expression is usually discouraged because it is believed to not lead to human fulfillment.

In some capitalist countries, large private sector firms often lead the way in the equal treatment of gay men and lesbians. For instance, more than half of the Fortune offer domestic partnership benefits and 49 of the Fortune 50 companies include sexual orientation in their non-discrimination policies only ExxonMobil does not.

In one study, for example, two fictitious but realistic resumes were sent to roughly 1, entry-level job openings. The two resumes were very similar in terms of the applicant's qualifications, but one resume for each opening mentioned that the applicant had been part of a gay organization in college. The results showed that applicants without the gay signal had an The callback gap varied widely according to the location of the job. Most of the overall gap detected in the study was driven by the Southern and Midwestern states in the sample—Texas, Florida, and Ohio.

The Western and Northeastern states in the sample California, Nevada, Pennsylvania, and New York had only small and statistically insignificant callback gaps. Conservatism is a term broadly used for people who are inclined to traditional values. While conservatism includes people of many views, a significant proportion of its adherents consider homosexuals, and especially the efforts of homosexuals to achieve certain rights and recognition, to be a threat to valued traditions, institutions and freedoms.

Such attitudes are generally tied in with opposition to what some conservatives call the " homosexual agenda ". The finding that attitudes to alternative sexualities correlate strongly with nature of contact and with personal beliefs is stated in a variety of research over a substantial time period, and conservative men and women stand out in their views specifically.

The ATLG and its subscales are consistently correlated with other theoretically relevant constructs. Higher scores more negative attitudes correlate significantly with high religiosity, lack of contact with gay men and lesbians, adherence to traditional sex-role attitudes, belief in a traditional family ideology, and high levels of dogmatism [51]. The strongest predictor of positive attitudes toward homosexuals was that the interviewee knew a gay man or lesbian.

The correlation held across each demographic subset represented in the survey—sex, education level, age—bar one: political persuasion. An example of conservative views can also be found in the discussion of what conservatives call " homosexual recruitment ", within a document released by the conservative Christian organization Alliance Defense Fund states:. The homosexual activist movement are driving an agenda that will severely limit the ability to live and practice the Gospel, whether it is in the boardroom, the classroom, halls of government, private organizations, and even in places of worship.

In their relentless attempts to obtain special rights, that no other special interest group has, they are in the process of redefining the family, demanding not only 'tolerance' As this statement illustrates, those who believe that a disapproving attitude toward homosexuality is a tenet of their religion can see efforts to abolish such attitudes as an attack on their religious freedom. Those who regard homosexuality as a sin or perversion can believe that acceptance of homosexual parents and same-sex marriage will redefine and diminish the institutions of family and marriage.

More generally, conservatives—by definition—prefer that institutions, traditions and values remain unchanged, and this has put many of them in opposition to efforts designed to increase the cultural acceptance and legal rights of homosexuals. The decision was supported by a majority of the membership.

Though some criticized this as a political decision, the social and political impetus for change was supported by scientific evidence. Many religious groups and other advocates, like National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality NARTH , believe that they can "heal" or "cure" homosexuality through conversion therapy or other methods to change sexual orientation.

In a survey of people who were undergoing conversion therapy , attending " ex-gay " groups or "ex-gay" conferences, Much attention was given to the dissent from this opinion by Dr. Robert Spitzer , but he later realized that his research was flawed and apologized for the damage it may have done. Ariel Shidlo and Dr. In many non-Western post-colonial countries, homosexual orientation is still considered to be a mental disorder and illness.

In Muslim areas, this position is ascribed to the earlier adoption of European Victorian attitudes by the westernized elite, in areas where previously native traditions embraced same-sex relations.

The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah as takes place in the Bible is sometimes attributed to attempted homosexual rape, but this is disputed [61] and differs from earlier beliefs. Early Jewish belief and some Jews today [62] variously attributed the destruction to turning a blind eye to social injustice or lack of hospitality.

Since the Middle Ages , sodomites were blamed for "bringing down the wrath of God " upon the land, and their pleasures blamed for the periodic epidemics of disease which decimated the population. This "pollution" was thought to be cleansed by fire, as a result of which countless individuals were burned at the stake or run through with white-hot iron rods. Some people fear exposing their children to homosexuals in unsupervised settings, because they believe the children might be molested , raped , or " recruited " to be homosexuals themselves.

Though "the majority of the abusive acts were homosexual in nature Small-scale studies by Dr. Carole Jenny, Dr. Richard Sipe, and others have not found evidence that homosexuals are more likely to molest children than heterosexuals. Kurt Freund , analyzing sex offender samples, concluded that only rarely does a sex offender against male children have a preference for adult males; [80] Frenzel and Lang also noticed a lack of androphiles in their phallometric analysis of child sex offenders, which included 25 men who offended against underage boys.

Johns Hopkins University psychiatrist Dr. Frederick Berlin , who runs a treatment program for offenders, says it's flawed to assume that men who molest young boys are attracted to adult men; Berlin defines attraction to children as a separate orientation of its own.

Richard Sipe also argues that the sexual deprivation that occurs in the priesthood could lead one to turn to children and that boys are more accessible to priests and other male authority figures than girls.

Nicholas Groth found that nearly half of the child sex offenders in his small sample were exclusively attracted to children. The other half regressed to children after finding trouble in adult relationships.

No one in his sample was primarily attracted to same-sex adults. The empirical research shows that sexual orientation does not affect the likelihood that people will abuse children.

Lawmakers and social commentators have sometimes expressed a concern that normalizing homosexuality would also lead to normalizing pedophilia, if it were determined that pedophilia too were a sexual orientation. The term gay propaganda may be used by others to allege similar behaviors, especially in relation to false accusations of homosexual recruitment and an alleged gay agenda.

In the United Kingdom , Section 28 of the Local Government Act banned "promotion of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship" by local government employees in the course of their duties. The act was aimed to prevent the "promotion of homosexuality" in schools. It was later repealed in Scotland on 21 June as one of the first pieces of legislation enacted by the new Scottish Parliament , and on 18 November in England and Wales by section of the Local Government Act , with the Labour government also issuing an apology to LGBT people for the act.

Lithuania put in place a similar such ban 16 June amid protests by gay rights groups. Gay people have been the target of violence for their sexuality in various cultures throughout history. During the Holocaust , , gay men were arrested, and between 5,—15, gay men perished in Nazi concentration camps.

Societal attitudes toward homosexuality vary greatly in different cultures and different historical periods, as do attitudes toward sexual desire, activity and relationships in general. All cultures have their own values regarding appropriate and inappropriate sexuality ; some sanction same-sex love and sexuality, while others disapprove of such activities. For example, among the samurai class of pre-modern Japan, it was recommended for a teenage novice to enter into an erotic relationship with an older warrior see Shudo , but sexual relations between the two became inappropriate once the boy came of age.

In Ancient Greece homoerotic practices were widely present, and integrated into the religion, education, philosophy and military culture. In particular, anal intercourse was condemned by many, including Plato , as a form of hubris and faulted for dishonoring and feminizing the boys.

Relations between adult males were generally ridiculed. Plato also believed that the chaste form of the relationship was the mark of an enlightened society, while only barbarians condemned it. The extent to which the Greeks engaged in and tolerated homosexual relations is open to some debate. In Sparta and Thebes, there appeared to be a particularly strong emphasis on these relationships, and it was considered an important part of a youth's education.

The masculinity of an adult male citizen was defined sexually by his taking the penetrative role, whether his partner was female or a male of lower status. It was considered natural for a man to be attracted to a beautiful young male, [] but the bodies of citizen youths were strictly off-limits. Same-sex relations among male citizens of equal status, including soldiers , were disparaged, and in some circumstances penalized harshly.

Homosexual behaviors were regulated in so far as they threatened or impinged on an ideal of liberty for the dominant male, who retained his masculinity by not being penetrated. Although Roman law did not recognize marriage between men, and in general Romans regarded marriage as a heterosexual union with the primary purpose of producing children, in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating traditional marriage rites.

Juvenal remarks that his friends often attended such ceremonies. He had his pederastic lover Sporus castrated, and during their marriage, Sporus appeared in public as Nero's wife wearing the regalia that was customary for Roman empresses.

Same-sex relations among women are infrequently documented during the Republic and Principate , but better attested during the Empire. Instead, they consort with women, just like men. Like the cultures of many ancient civilizations, the Chinese had no concept of homosexuality and heterosexuality, [] and according to Louis Crompton, there are historical records that tacitly assumed bisexuality as the human norm in China. All men in the realm followed this fashion to the extent that husbands and wives were estranged.

Resentful unmarried women became jealous. Opposition to homosexuality in China originates in the medieval Tang Dynasty , attributed to the rising influence of Christian and Islamic values, [] but did not become fully established until the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China. The relationship described between David and Jonathan in 1 Samuel 18 - 2 Samuel 1 has been of late interpreted by some people as a romantic one, however this view is not what the early church held.

Many contend that from its earliest days, Christianity followed the Hebrew tradition of condemnation of male sexual intercourse and certain forms of sexual relations between men and women, labeling both as sodomy. Some contemporary Christian scholars dispute this however. The teachings of Jesus Christ encouraged a turning away from and forgiveness of sin, including those sins of sexual impurity, although Jesus never referred to homosexuality specifically.

Jesus was known as a defender of those whose sexual sins were condemned by the Pharisees. At the same time, Jesus strongly upheld the Ten Commandments and urged those whose sexual sins were forgiven to, "go, and sin no more". Saint Paul was even more explicit in his condemnation of sinful behavior, including sodomy, saying, "Know you not that the unjust shall not possess the kingdom of God?

Do not err: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor the effeminate, nor liers with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor railers, nor extortioners, shall possess the kingdom of God. In the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament, however, the relevant words employed in 1 Corinthians and 1 Timothy are the same words employed in Leviticus 18 to denote gay men.

After the emperor Constantine ended the persecution of Christians throughout the Roman Empire and made Christianity the official state religion in the 4th century, Christian attitudes toward sexual behavior were soon incorporated into Roman Law.

In the year , the emperor Justinian I , responding to an outbreak of pederasty among the Christian clergy, issued a law which made castration the punishment for sodomy. In medieval Europe, homosexuality was considered sodomy and was punishable by death.

Persecutions reached their height during the Medieval Inquisitions , when the sects of Cathars and Waldensians were accused of fornication and sodomy, alongside accusations of Satanism. In , accusations of sodomy and homosexuality were major charges leveled during the Trial of the Knights Templar.

The Bedamini people of New Guinea believe that semen is the main source of masculinity and strength. In consequence, the sharing of semen between men, particularly when there is an age gap, is seen as promoting growth throughout nature, while excessive heterosexual activities are seen as leading to decay and death. A survey run by the Levada Centre in Russia in July concluded that "homophobia is widespread in Russian society".

It draws this conclusion from the following findings. The Levada Centre reached the following conclusions on the distribution of these view in different groups of society. Women, young Russians 18—39 , and well educated and comfortably off respondents showed more tolerance for people of a non-traditional sexual orientation, and more understanding of related issues.

Respondents over 40, people of average or lower education or low incomes, and rural people—the sectors retaining the inertia of Soviet thinking—are more likely to believe that homosexuality is a disease requiring treatment, and that homosexuals must be isolated from society".

Men who have sex with other men in Arab societies do not commonly refer to each other as homosexuals. Laurens Buijs, Gert Hekma , and Jan Willem Duyvendak, authors of the article "'As long as they keep away from me': The paradox of antigay violence in a gay-friendly country", said "This might explain why they are more likely to condemn men who explicitly claim a homosexual identity. Laurens Buijs, Gert Hekma , and Jan Willem Duyvendak, authors of the article "'As long as they keep away from me': The paradox of antigay violence in a gay-friendly country", said that the Netherlands has a "tolerant and gay-friendly image", [] and that Dutch people, according to cross-national survey research, exhibit more acceptance of homosexuality than "most other European peoples".

They argued that "antigay violence is a remarkably grave problem" in that country. In the s in the United States , open homosexuality was taboo. Legislatures in every state had passed laws against homosexual behavior well before this, most notably anti-sodomy laws.

Many politicians treated the homosexual as a symbol of antinationalism, construing masculinity as patriotism and marking the "unmasculine" homosexual as a threat to national security. This perceived connection between homosexuality and antinationalism was present in Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia [] as well, and appears in contemporary politics to this day.

Senator Joseph McCarthy used accusations of homosexuality as a smear tactic in his anti-Communist crusade , often combining the Second Red Scare with the Lavender Scare.

On one occasion, he went so far as to announce to reporters, "If you want to be against McCarthy, boys, you've got to be either a Communist or a cocksucker. Senator Kenneth Wherry likewise attempted to invoke some connection between homosexuality and antinationalism as, for example, when he said in an interview with Max Lerner that "You can't hardly separate homosexuals from subversives.

I say, let's get these fellows [closeted gay men in government positions] out of the government. There were other perceived connections between homosexuality and Communism.

Wherry publicized fears that Joseph Stalin had obtained a list of closeted homosexuals in positions of power from Adolf Hitler , which he believed Stalin intended to use to blackmail these men into working against the U. It is an accepted fact among intelligence agencies that espionage organizations the world over consider sex perverts who are in possession of or have access to confidential material to be prime targets where pressure can be exerted. In addition there is an abundance of evidence to sustain the conclusion that indulgence in acts of sex perversion weakens the moral fiber of an individual to a degree that he is not suitable for a position of responsibility.

Beginning in the 20th century, LGBT rights movements have led to changes in social acceptance and in the media portrayal of same-gender relationships. The legalization of same-sex marriage and non-gender-specific civil unions is one of the major goals of gay rights supporters.

See also LGBT rights organization. Attitudes toward homosexuality have changed in developed societies in the latter part of the 20th century, accompanied by a greater acceptance of gay people into both secular and religious institutions. Some opponents of the movement say the term LGBT civil rights is a misnomer and an attempt to piggyback on the civil rights movement. Jesse Lee Peterson , for example, called the comparison of the civil rights movement to the "gay rights movement" a "disgrace to a black American".

He said that "homosexuality is not a civil right. What we have is a bunch of radical homosexuals trying to attach their agenda to the struggles of the s," [] while Jesse Jackson has said "Gays were never called three-fifths human in the Constitution.

A separate study shows that, in the United States, the younger generation is more supportive of gay rights than average, and that there is growing support for LBGT rights. In , for the first time, a majority of Americans supported the legalization of same-sex marriage. Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. How societies view, stigmatize or like homosexuality. No data. Main article: LGBT rights by country or territory.

Worldwide laws regarding same-sex intercourse and state of expression and association. Rings indicate areas where local judges have granted or denied marriages or imposed the death penalty in a jurisdiction where that is not otherwise the law or areas with a case-by-case application.

Further information: Islam and homosexuality. Main article: Homosexuality and religion. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.

December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Homosexuality and psychology and Sexual orientation change efforts.

Main article: LGBT stereotypes. See also: Homosexual agenda. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. January Main article: Homosexuality in ancient Greece.

See also: Homosexuality in the militaries of ancient Greece and Pederasty in ancient Greece. Main article: Homosexuality in Ancient Rome. Main article: Homosexuality in China. Main article: Homosexuality and Christianity. Main article: Homosexuality in Medieval Europe. May Play media. See also: Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States. LGBT portal. University of Chicago. Homosexuality and Civilization. Harvard University Press.

The New York Times. Retrieved 8 September University of California Press. Pew Research Center. Archived from the original PDF on 18 February Retrieved 8 December Myth of the Modern Homosexual. Bloomsbury Academic. The author has made adapted and expanded portions of this book available online as A Critique of Social Constructionism and Postmodern Queer Theory.

To perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the original North American version of the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale ATLG for use in Brazil, and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the adapted instrument in a sample of Brazilian heterosexual physicians. Stages of cross-cultural adaptation were as follows: translation by two independent evaluators, translation synthesis, evaluation by the target population for semantic equivalence, pilot study with 42 physicians, and final instrument preparation involving heterosexual physicians practicing medicine in the Federal District.

Invitations containing a link to the study were sent to physicians via e-mail, social media and medical associations. Inclusion criteria were as follows: being a physician authorized to practice medicine in Brazil, practicing medicine in the Brazilian Federal District, and self-declared heterosexual, as stipulated in the original version of the ATLG scale. Exclusion criteria were not disclosed to potential participants to avoid inhibition and unwillingness to participate; respondents meeting exclusion criteria were removed from the sample during data analysis.

In the United States, about 2. In , homosexuality ceased to be considered a mental disorder by the American Psychiatry Association APA ; still, discrimination against gay men and lesbians is recognized as a potential barrier in physician-patient relationships. According to the position statement developed by the American Geriatrics Society AGS committee in , discrimination faced by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual or Transgender LGBT individuals when seeking health care is evidenced by the denial of certain medical care services, generalized heteronormative assumptions, refusal to accept a chosen caregiver during hospitalization and overt derogatory statements that may lead to health care seeking delay or avoidance out of fear of discrimination.

Moreover, these instruments must address attitudes toward homosexuals only, excluding other sexual and gender minorities, such as transgender, if they are to distinguish attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Specificity is required because physicians may deal with only one of these groups in clinical practice e. To perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the original North American version of the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale for use in Brazil, and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the adapted instrument, based on a sample of heterosexual Brazilian physicians.

Participants were recruited using snowball sampling. Research advertising and invitations for voluntary participation were sent to physicians via e-mail, social media and professional organizations. The following inclusion criteria were applied to the initial sample: being a physician authorized to practice Medicine in Brazil; practicing medicine in the Brazilian Federal District; and heterosexual, as stipulated in the original version of the scale.

Sample size was calculated based on the suggested ratio of ten participants per observable variable. Hence, given the scale consisted of 20 items, a minimum sample size of valid cases was required. After completion of the study, the need to evaluate participants per factor was also met. Given the inclusion of gynecologists i.

The fact that ATLG was considered one of the best instruments from a validity and reliability standpoint, in a systematic review of instruments designed to assess homophobia and related constructs, 14 was yet another reason for choosing this particular instrument. The original ATLG consists of 20 items, the first 10 about lesbians and the next 10 about gay men, and can be used as a single scale or two distinct subscales Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Attitudes Toward Gay Men. The total scale score ranges from 20 to , with higher scores indicating more negative attitudes.

Subscale scores range from 10 to This study followed all procedures required to ensure content of the original instrument: translation from the source language English to the target language Portuguese by two evaluators; synthesis of the translated versions; analysis of the final version by experts, semantic evaluation by the target population; and finally, a pilot study. Two independent translations of the scale were produced by two native speakers of Portuguese target language who were fluent in English source language : an experienced researcher in cross-cultural adaptation of instruments, and a person not involved in academic work.

A synthesis of these translations was made by a group of professors with solid knowledge of cross-cultural adaptation of instruments. This was followed by a discussion of the final version of the adapted instrument for implementation by the authors and a psychometrics professional. The final version of the adapted instrument was evaluated by 13 physicians who completed the questionnaire and were asked to examine the items for clarity.

Suggestions made by the target population were then evaluated, leading to changes in items 4, 8 and 17 of the adapted scale. Although semantic equivalence between the original and translated versions was maintained, unlike the United States, there are no state laws regulating homosexual behavior in Brazil. Still, doubts as to the adequacy of the item to the Brazilian context remained. After implementation of above described modifications, the final version of the instrument was uploaded into an online survey platform for a quantitative pilot study with 42 heterosexual physicians.

Data were collected from March to September Requirements for informed consent were waived since it was felt the process of obtaining consent might inhibit participation, or allow the identification of participants. Use of a limited set of sociodemographic data helped protect anonymity of research participants, even from the authors.

Descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis were used to identify the factor structure of the instrument. The number of factors to be retained in the instrument was determined using the Hull method 19 and Factor version 10 software.

Confirmatory factor analysis was performed using Mplus software. Weighted least squares-mean and variance-adjusted WLSMV estimation was performed using a polychoric correlation matrix, and respecting the ordinal nature of the data.

The final sample consisted of heterosexual physicians aged 24 to 72 years mean age, Of these, Physicians in this sample were either Catholic ; Marital status was stratified as married or living in consensual union ; Percentage of explained variance, scree plot and eigenvalue analysis suggested the extraction of up to three factors from the ATLG scale.

Items in the female and male homosexuality scales did not diverge; therefore, perceptions of female and male homosexuality did not differ significantly. Factor loadings of scale items are shown in table 1. Version tranlated and adapted from Herek GM. J Sex Res. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable fit indices for the exploratory model Table 2.

Fit indices were also investigated for a model considering male and female dimensions separately. The latter fit indices were also thought to be acceptable; however, the 0. Finally, specific analyses were performed for the male and female homosexuality dimensions to investigate whether these dimensions would be effective as a single instrument aimed at assessing attitudes toward a specific gender i. Results revealed acceptable fit indices for both subscales; however, the female dimension was better fitted than the male dimension.

Given the lack of a specific questionnaire for separate assessment of attitudes of heterosexual physicians toward gay men and lesbians in Brazil, this study set out to adapt the ATLG scale and gather validity and reliability evidences.

Homosexuality ceased to be considered a disease since ; still, it is a critical vulnerability factor requiring proper recognition and effective, specific management on the part of health professionals.

The fact that sexual minorities may avoid health care seeking out of fear of disrespectful behavior and discriminatory treatment may partially explain the increased prevalence of diseases and risk factors in these patients.

In spite of the growing numbers of Brazilian social science studies addressing prejudice, homophobia and attitudes toward homosexuals over the last 10 years, these are mostly focused on undergraduate students 24 , 25 and therefore of limited representativeness.

In addition, the instruments used in some of these studies were not cross-culturally adapted or validated for use in Brazil. According to Costa et al.

For this reason, an instrument that accounts for this cultural specificity i. Homosexual patients who fit the characteristics associated with their sex role masculine men and feminine women , who may benefit from a certain degree of social invisibility and therefore be spared from discriminatory attitudes, often experience discrimination in medical consultations.

Given the power nature of physician-patient relationships, the assessment of constructs, such as sex-related attitudes and prejudice, must account for related peculiarities.

The cross-cultural adaptation of the ATLG scale for use in Brazil may help address the specificities of this particular physician-patient relationship. Good evidence for validity of the ATLG can be found in the current literature. Moreover, the ATLG is the most commonly used tool in research with physicians and health professionals in the English language. The first study evaluating the psychometric properties of this instrument was conducted by Herek, in , and gathered evidence of validity in three distinct samples of students, with alpha values of 0.

In a study describing the use and adaptation of the ATLG to the Dutch population, factorial analysis also revealed a single factor encompassing all questionnaire items.

According to authors of that study, some items in the North American version required cultural adaptation, given the higher tolerance of homosexuality among Dutch compared to American people. This shows that, although semantic properties allow instrument adaptation to different primary cultures, some modifications are required for cultural context assessment.

This study had similar limitations to other research investigating prejudice, including a relatively low rate of response to invitations to participate, and potential impacts of social desirability phenomena, such as providing socially acceptable responses that are probably not true.

Given the snowball sampling method used in the study, response rates could not be estimated. Finally, future research is warranted to test for convergent and predictive validity.

We hope this study will help to fill a major gap in the Brazilian literature regarding the availability of instruments aimed to measure prejudice against homosexuals, and serve to assess physicians practicing in other locations, as well as other healthcare professionals and professionals from other areas, such as education, thereby promoting improvements in care delivered to sexual minorities.

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Overweight and obesity in sexual-minority women: evidence from population-based data. American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee. American Geriatrics Society care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults position statement: American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee.

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Gay attitudes