Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences-(PDF) Management Across Cultures: Challenges and Strategies | Rehan Raihan - fiddley.com

JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Save For Later Print. Given that most agricultural businesses work with people from two or more different cultural backgrounds at the same time, it is important to promote effective communication among employees and employers. But communication in all of its facets has many implications and potential barriers, as it includes both verbal language and non-verbal gestures, personal space, etc.

Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences

Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences

Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences

Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences

Thank you for your submission! These methods are an important Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences of the empathy and Face bleach creams that must be realized day to day in order to improve and maintain professional relationships, the workplace Hallibruton, importantly, production and profits. Having the skills to work with people of different cultures is key. To accomplish this, the most important thing is to first ensure that senior managers adequately understand the project goals and expectations. May 29, at pm. This is always a challenge, and even more so in large corporations where the dominant culture is the one employees are expected sensutive adopt. April 2, at am. According cultjral this theory, people who are truly interested in embracing cultural sensitivity move from:. Finally, the fact that people from other cultures work differently does not mean they are wrong--they still may accomplish the desired results.

Winnielle west indian models. Introduction

External link. Neuroimage 58— Neurodynamic studies on emotional and inverted faces in an oddball paradigm. The peak amplitude cultutal each recording in both groups has been normalized to 75 dB to mitigate gross differences in perceived loudness. Open in a separate window. Published online May Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. As related ERP data are largely lacking, these data would supply unique insights about the nature and temporal characteristics of cultural effects on Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences cortical response to multi-sensory emotional cues that are an integral part of human communication. In addition to the vocal and facial stimuli, two pure tone auditory stimuli lasting ms were constructed to act as non-vocal auditory stimuli in one condition presented to each group four pure tone stimuli total. This factor was therefore not included for the subsequent analysis. Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This is compatible with species-specific effects on the integrative perception of cross-channel cues observed in previous literature, which, for example, reported that the recognition of emotional body posture was influenced by human vocalizations to Nude resort vacation cabo larger extent than by animal sounds Van den Stock et cultufal. Lastly, for better or worse, Halliburton needs to keep public relations in mind when any action is taken, internally or externally, in the firm. Effect sizes for experimenting psychologists.

In the past few months, the United States has experienced a dramatic increase in hate crimes being reported.

  • Halliburton is a leading energy services company with 60, employees working in 80 countries.
  • Get access to this section to get all the help you need with your essay and educational goals.
  • Evidence that culture modulates on-line neural responses to the emotional meanings encoded by vocal and facial expressions was demonstrated recently in a study comparing English North Americans and Chinese Liu et al.
  • One of the results of increased globalization in the world economy is the frequent interaction of different cultures in the business world.

In the past few months, the United States has experienced a dramatic increase in hate crimes being reported. To say that the Discover Corps team finds this to be an incredibly disturbing trend is an understatement. We are thoroughly disgusted by recently reported events such as the vandalism and destruction of headstones at Jewish cemeteries across the country, hateful rhetoric and violence aimed at Muslim Americans , and way too many other instances of intolerance.

Of that total, more than 25 percent were motivated by anti-immigrant sentiments. Even simple, rational beliefs about equality and basic human rights have become increasingly politically charged. These values are paramount to assuring that citizens of our increasingly globalized planet are able to understand and respect one another. The idea behind cultural sensitivity is very straightforward. Cultural sensitivity refers to a set of skills that allows you to learn about and understand people whose cultural background is not the same as yours.

Essentially, it means that, as you go about your daily life, you operate with the awareness that cultural differences between yourself and the people you meet exist without assigning them a value.

Of course, this is often easier said than done. It also means that, when you knowingly enter a space in which there will be cultural differences at play, you do a bit of homework beforehand and avoid knee-jerk reactions or jumping to conclusions.

This helps grow your understanding of your new surroundings, and makes your time spent there more meaningful. Large corporations now include cultural sensitivity training in their employee on-boarding process. Many publishers hire teams to review content for various cultural interpretations prior to release. Check out their awesome new Pro Hijab as an example.

This will help you to lead with understanding and empathy, rather than judgment, which is an incredibly important shift. It opens your mind and heart to those who you may not previously have shared an understanding with. Gaining an insight into the cultures of others is an important step toward developing cultural sensitivity and awareness. This is exciting news, because it will lead to the next generation of global citizens being more culturally sensitive, aware, and understanding in their interactions with others.

Because we believe that open-minded travelers of all ages, backgrounds, and belief systems will be the people who ultimately help change our world for the better. In addition to writing for The Volunteer Traveler, she has directed international programming for various travel organizations.

Yes, well said! This article could persuade people to travel more and visit places very different from their own background. Thank you for reading Natalia! Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. By using this form you agree with the storage and handling of your data by this website.

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See commentary " Commentary: Cultural differences in on-line sensitivity to emotional voices: comparing East and West " in volume 9, Although cross-cultural differences have been detected in tasks when participants explicitly attend to emotional meanings of the stimuli, many emotional signals are encountered when people are not paying attention to the stimuli. Neuroreport 15 , — Grand averages elicited by Standard trials solid lines , Deviant trials dotted lines , and the difference wave dashed lines; Deviant—Standard at Oz electrode for each condition of eachgroup negative is plotted down. Table 2 Types of standard and deviant trials of each block in each condition. Given the fact that these findings were all observed in participants from the Western culture English North Americans and Dutch , this asymmetric pattern in the MMN effect, showing that Western participants were influenced by faces but lacking evidence that they were affected by voices, is in keeping with our previous findings based on analyses of N and behavioral accuracy data Liu et al. Get access to this section to get all the help you need with your essay and educational goals.

Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences

Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences

Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences

Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences

Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences. BUSINESS IDEAS

The peak amplitude of each recording in both groups has been normalized to 75 dB to mitigate gross differences in perceived loudness. In our studies, we chose to use emotional pseudo-utterances that resemble human speech, rather than non-linguistic vocalizations e.

Faces were synchronized with voices posed by the same cultural group to construct face-voice pairs of ms, including both congruent fearful face and fearful voice, sad face and sad voice and incongruent fearful face and sad voice, sad face and fearful voice pairs. Mean recognition rates percent correct target identification and emotional intensity ratings of the vocal and facial stimuli by emotion and cultural group standard deviation in parentheses.

Examples of facial and vocal stimuli. Left, example of Chinese fearful face and Chinese pseudo-sentence. Right, example of Caucasian sad face and English pseudo-sentence. In addition to the vocal and facial stimuli, two pure tone auditory stimuli lasting ms were constructed to act as non-vocal auditory stimuli in one condition presented to each group four pure tone stimuli total. The frequency of each pure tone stimulus was determined by calculating the mean fundamental frequency values of the fearful and sad vocal expressions produced by speakers of each language Chinese fearful voices: Hz, Chinese sad voices: Hz; English fearful voices: Hz, English sad voices: Hz.

An Oddball task composed of three experimental conditions was presented. In Condition 1, facial expressions were presented without any auditory stimuli to serve as the control condition to examine the classical visual MMN effect elicited by facial stimuli face-only condition. In Condition 2 emotional voices were paired with the same facial expressions as in the face-only condition, to test the influence of concurrent vocal information on the passive processing of faces face-voice condition.

In Condition 3, the face-tone condition , pure tone stimuli were paired with the same faces, in order to exclude the possibility that effects observed in the face-voice condition could be simply attributed to the presentation of audio-visual stimuli, regardless of their emotional meanings.

In Condition 1, fear faces served as standard trials and sad faces served as deviant trials in block 1 and 2, while this pattern was reversed in blocks 3 and 4 i.

In addition to faces, 60 pictures of circles were randomly inserted in each block as target trials to which the participants had to press a button as response.

This was to ensure that the participants were actively attending to the targets and viewing the faces passively. In Condition 2, each face was paired with an emotional voice to construct a bimodal face-voice condition. Specifically, faces were paired with fearful voices in block 1 and 3, whereas faces of block 2 and 4 were paired with sad voices. This led to the four bi-modal blocks: in two blocks, incongruent pairs sad face-fearful voice pairs in block 1, fearful face-sad voice pairs in block 4 served as standards and congruent pairs fearful face-voice pairs in block 1, sad face-voice pairs in block 4 , served as deviants; in the other two blocks, congruent pairs sad face-voice pairs in block 2, fearful face-voice pairs in block 3 served as standards while incongruent pairs fearful face-sad voice pairs in block 2, sad face-fearful voice pairs in block 3 served as deviants.

The purpose of exchanging standard and deviant trials as congruent or incongruent pairs was to examine whether the congruence of face-voice pairs was relevant in evoking the vMMN. Again, 60 circles were randomly inserted as targets in each block. In Condition 3, each face was paired with a pure tone of ms to create a face-tone condition. In block 1 and 3, the faces were paired with a tone with a frequency matched with the mean f0 of the fearful voices; in block 2 and 4, the faces were paired with a tone with a frequency matched with the mean f0 of the sad voices.

Sixty circles were again included as targets. This paradigm has been typically used in the visual MMN literature and it is assumed that while the classical aMMN paradigm examines the pre-attentive processing of auditory stimuli, this vMMN paradigm would tap into the passive perceptual processing of the deviant vs.

That is, the visual MMN component elicited in such paradigms has been considered an indication of the early passive detection of infrequent deviant information in the visual modality Stagg et al. In all three conditions, each block started with a ms fixation cross presented at the center of the monitor, followed by the sequence of trials that were presented pseudo-randomly such that two deviant trials never appeared in immediate succession, and at least three standard trials appeared in a row between two deviant ones.

Each trial was presented for ms, and the variable inter-trial interval was — ms. The visual stimuli were presented at the center of the monitor and the auditory stimuli were presented binaurally via headphones at a consistent comfortable listening level. In all conditions, the participants were instructed to detect the circle targets among the faces by pressing the spacebar.

Each condition started with a practice block of 40 trials to familiarize participants with the procedure. The order of the four blocks within each condition and the order of the three conditions were counter-balanced among participants, and a min break was inserted between blocks.

Task procedures for each of the three conditions in the Oddball task. In all conditions, each trial last for ms; the variable inter-trial-interval varied between — ms. In the face-voice and face-tone conditions, the visual and auditory stimuli were synchronized. From top to bottom: face-only, face-voice, face-tone. Note that the current experiment was completed by the two participant groups before they began the Stroop task reported by Liu et al.

After preparation for EEG recording, participants were seated approximately 65 cm in front of a computer monitor in a dimly lit, sound-attenuated, electrically-shielded testing booth. Four additional electrodes were placed for vertical and horizontal electro-oculogram recording: two at the outer canthi of eyes and two above and below the left eye.

The EEG data were resampled off-line to Hz, re-referenced to the average of all 64 electrodes, and 0. The data were then inspected visually to reject unreliable channels and trials containing large artifacts and drifts, after which EOG artifacts were rejected by means of Independent Component Analysis decomposition. For further analysis, all target trials and Standard trials that immediately followed Deviants were also excluded, leaving trials Standards, 60 Deviants in each block.

After artifact rejection, an average of Based on our hypothesis, the vMMN component was of sole interest in the analyses. Visual inspection of the waveforms of grand averaged ERPs revealed more negative-going deflections elicited by Deviant trials relative to Standard ones during the — ms time window in the occipital-parietal region in each condition of each group, confirming our expectations. For these electrodes, an exploratory investigation of the peak latency of the difference wave between Deviant and Standard trials Deviant—Standard yielded an averaged peak latency of ms range — ms across conditions, consistent with previous literature and our visual inspection of the data; accordingly, the — ms time window was selected for the analysis of MMN, from which the mean amplitude values were extracted for the 14 selected electrodes.

A three-step analysis was performed on the EEG data. First, to verify whether there was a deviance effect in each condition, repeated-measures ANOVAs were conducted on the mean amplitude between and ms after the onset of the stimulus across selected electrodes, in each of the three conditions for each group, respectively.

Specifically, in the face-only condition, deviance Standard and Deviant and facial expression of Deviants fear and sadness were adopted as within-subjects factors for a two-way repeated-measures ANOVA; in the face-voice condition, deviance Standard and Deviant , facial expression of Deviants fear and sadness , and congruence of Deviants congruent and Incongruent served as within-subjects factors for a three-way repeated-measures ANOVA; in the face-tone condition, deviance Standard and Deviant , facial expression of Deviants fear and sadness , and tone frequency 1 and frequency 2 were included as within-subjects factors for a three-way repeated-measures ANOVA.

Second, difference waves were obtained in each block of each condition by employing an approach that has been typically used in the relevant literature, i.

In this study, this calculation was conducted for the — ms time window after stimulus onset in each condition. In the face-only condition where only visual stimuli were presented, the difference wave reflects a pure vMMN elicited by Deviant faces relative to Standard ones Susac et al. In the face-voice and face-tone conditions, while facial stimuli were varied as Deviant and Standard trials, the auditory stimuli were identical across all trials fearful or sad voices in the face-voice condition; pure tones in the face-tone condition.

Thus, in subtracting the ERPs in the Standards from the Deviants, potentials that were purely related with auditory processing were eliminated. The obtained difference wave, on the other hand, included potentials related with both visual processing and audio-visual interactions, which was the interest of this study.

Therefore, the difference wave was considered as a component reflecting the early responses to visual stimuli with or without the influence of simultaneous presence of auditory cues. Finally, to further clarify how the difference wave was modulated by culture, a two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted on the amplitude of vMMN across selected electrodes, with Condition face-only, face-voice, and face-tone as the within-subjects factor and Group Chinese and English as the between-subjects factor.

This means that Deviant trials elicited more negative going ERP amplitude than Standard trials, implying that a visual MMN effect was evoked in each experimental condition.

Grand averages elicited by Standard trials solid lines , Deviant trials dotted lines , and the difference wave dashed lines; Deviant—Standard at Oz electrode for each condition of eachgroup negative is plotted down.

Overall, a larger vMMN was observed in the face-voice condition than the other two conditions. A Grand averages at Oz electrode and topographic maps of vMMN — ms for each condition of each group; B Mean amplitude values of vMMN averaged across selected electrodes for each condition of each group.

We also analyzed the MMN data with equal number of Standards those preceding the Deviants and Deviants and consistent results were found. English North Americans in an Oddball-like task. Our research provides solid evidence in support of our hypotheses as cultural background robustly modulated the vMMN component in distinct ways.

In particular, the Chinese group exhibited a larger vMMN component in the face-voice condition relative to the other two conditions, whereas no such a pattern was witnessed in the English group.

This suggests that Chinese participants were more influenced by concurrent vocal cues than English participants, an effect observed as early as ms after stimulus onset as participants passively decoded emotion from conjoined facial and vocal expressions.

More broadly, these patterns fit with the idea that individuals from East Asian cultures are more sensitive to vocal cues in communication Kitayama and Ishii, ; Ishii et al. As expected, a visual MMN component was observed in each experimental condition for each group, indicated by a significant effect of deviance i.

Standard trials. This difference wave is considered a visually-related component reflecting responses to visual stimuli in the presence of ignored auditory cues. The observation of vMMN in all three conditions suggests that both groups detected the infrequent changes in facial expressions at an early temporal stage, even though they were only passively viewing faces as they watched for visual targets a circle.

More interestingly, while in the literature vMMN was mostly reported in the processing of physical properties or simple semantic meanings e. Incongruent face-voice pairs could also effectively evoke such a component Althen et al.

In addition, no significant effects involving facial expression, face-voice congruence, or tone frequency were found on the — ms time window, indicating that exchanging the standard and deviant trials did not influence the MMN component e.

Types of standard and deviant trials of each block in each condition. Facial stimuli in bold of each block are identical across three conditions; auditory stimuli in italic are identical across standard and deviant trials within each block.

Specifically, individuals in the Chinese group showed larger vMMN amplitudes in the face-voice condition than the face-only and face-tone conditions, whereas no difference was observed across conditions for English participants.

Larger amplitude of the MMN component is thought to reflect the greater magnitude of the detected discrepancy of the Deviant stimulus Campbell et al. Given that facial expressions in all conditions were identical and evoked comparable visual potentials, it can be inferred that the larger MMN effect in the face-voice condition is due to the presence of concurrent vocal information as well as the interaction that occurred between facial and vocal stimuli.

In other words, Chinese participants may have involuntarily integrated the accompanying to-be-ignored vocal information while passively processing the facial expressions, which enhanced their MMN effect, whereas this did not occur for the English group. These findings establish that Chinese participants are more sensitive to vocal cues compared to English participants even at early temporal stages of emotion processing that are presumably mostly outside of attentional focus and control, indexed by the vMMN component.

Interestingly, no difference was found in the face-tone condition compared with the face-only condition. This suggests that the effects we observed are unique to human vocal expressions that bear special significance to communication and person perception Belin et al.

This is compatible with species-specific effects on the integrative perception of cross-channel cues observed in previous literature, which, for example, reported that the recognition of emotional body posture was influenced by human vocalizations to a larger extent than by animal sounds Van den Stock et al. Another possible reason that the face-only and face-tone conditions yielded similar results is that, compared to the face-voice condition, the other two conditions are more similar to each other.

While the vocal stimuli in the face-voice condition consisted of a variety of different utterances, auditory stimuli in the face-tone condition i. Future studies using non-vocal auditory stimuli with similar degree of variety and complexity to the vocal stimuli e. In the English group, no difference in vMMN was found between the face-voice condition and the other two conditions; i. Interestingly, a previous study reported that an aMMN component was induced by infrequent discrepant information in concurrent facial cues for Dutch participants de Gelder et al.

This finding, coupled with our results, implies an asymmetric pattern in Western participants, whereby facial displays automatically modulate the aMMN i. A similar asymmetry was documented in letter-speech sound processing in Dutch participants, where the aMMN in response to speech-sounds was modulated by concurrent visual letters, whereas the evidence of the vMMN in response to letters influenced by concurrent speech-sounds was not found Froyen et al.

Given the fact that these findings were all observed in participants from the Western culture English North Americans and Dutch , this asymmetric pattern in the MMN effect, showing that Western participants were influenced by faces but lacking evidence that they were affected by voices, is in keeping with our previous findings based on analyses of N and behavioral accuracy data Liu et al.

More generally, they also fit with the culture-specific hypothesis that Westerners possess a higher sensitivity to facial cues than vocal information when compared to East Asians e. It is worth underscoring that our findings demonstrate that the effect of cultural origin on multi-sensory emotion perception occurs particularly early after stimulus onset.

Indeed, other socio-cultural factors are known to impact emotion processing at a very early stage. For instance, effects of race on facial expression processing have been observed as early as the N component; compared to inverted other-race faces, inverted same-race faces lead to greater recognition impairment and elicit larger and later N amplitudes Gajewski et al.

Similarly, facial expressions embedded in backgrounds of fearful social scenes e. Coupled with our results, these findings imply that various cultural and social factors related to our experiences during development and through socialization are likely to play an important role, with seemingly rapid effects, on the processing of emotional stimuli.

As mentioned, it has been shown that the vMMN component is modulated by linguistic background of the participants during color perception Thierry et al. Together with our previous evidence that cultural origin affects N responses and behavioral accuracy for the same participants when consciously attending to facial-vocal emotions Liu et al. In our previous study using a Stroop-like paradigm Liu et al. However, current examination of the vMMN clearly demonstrates the predicted higher sensitivity to vocal cues of the Chinese during an earlier temporal window of passive emotion processing, elaborating upon our observation that English participants are more attuned to faces under different task conditions Liu et al.

When put together, these two studies argue that cultural origin plays a significant role at both earlier and later stages of multi-sensory emotion processing, which promoted the higher sensitivity to vocal cues of the Chinese group during the earlier MMN processing stage, and the higher susceptibility to facial cues of the English group during the later N and behavioral processing stage.

This demonstrates the robust influence of cultural origin on the processes for appraising and interpreting emotional expressions during communication; in particular, this cultural effect appears at a very early stage shortly after the onset of the emotional stimuli — ms , continues to the semantic processing stage around ms , and finally affects the explicit behavioral performance in perceiving emotions, compatible with the processing patterns proposed by existing models Schirmer and Kotz, Our claim that Chinese participants are more attuned to information in the vocal communication channel based on on-line neurophysiological measures is consistent with previous arguments of a similar behavioral bias for vocal emotions over faces for Japanese participants Tanaka et al.

Our results are also in line with observations in non-emotional communication that Japanese speakers use visual cues less than English speakers when interpreting audiovisual speech Sekiyama and Tohkura, As discussed in the Introduction Section, these culture-specific biases in communication are arguably the product of acquired display rules that regulate how people should communicate their feelings in a socially-appropriate manner in a specific culture Park and Huang, ; Engelmann and Pogosyan, Hypothetically, culturally-reinforced practices that promote restrained facial expressions and reduced eye contact in East Asian collectivist cultures, meant to avoid conflict and to maintain social harmony, limit the availability of visual facial cues for these cultures, meaning that greater perceptual weight would be accorded to vocal information during communication Tanaka et al.

These ideas are ripe for further testing. In addition, while this study focused on in-group emotion perception, using out-group stimuli in future studies would help to determine whether the observed cultural differences in the current study, which were arguably motivated by display rules, would transfer to another language and culture see Elfenbein, , for a related view. That is, would culture-specific neural responses observed here persist when participants are presented out-group stimuli that reflect the cultural norms of a foreign culture?

This would be an interesting question for future work. Another possible future direction is to pinpoint the brain generators of the observed cultural effects by using localization approaches e.

For instance, cultural differences during facial expression processing appear to modulate activation of the amygdala Moriguchi et al. It will be useful to test whether culture-specific patterns affecting the early pre-semantic stage of emotional processing, such as the vMMN observed here, can also be elucidated in the spatial dimension by future work that focuses on how functional brain networks are modulated by cultural experiences. In addition to effects of cultural origin , cultural immersion represents another case where cross-cultural communication can be hampered by display rules or other forms of acquired knowledge governing inter-personal communication.

Individuals who live for extended periods in a foreign culture show more similar neuro cognitive patterns to their host culture in various cognitive domains, including facial expression perception Derntl et al.

In light of differences in how Chinese and English process multisensory emotional stimuli, how would cultural immersion and exposure to a new set of social conventions impact on these patterns, for example, in the case of Chinese immigrants living in North America? We are now exploring this question in a follow-up study Liu et al. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

This factor was therefore not included for the subsequent analysis. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Hum Neurosci v.

Front Hum Neurosci. Published online May Pell 1. Marc D. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jan 20; Accepted May The use, distribution and reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

See commentary " Commentary: Cultural differences in on-line sensitivity to emotional voices: comparing East and West " in volume 9, This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Evidence that culture modulates on-line neural responses to the emotional meanings encoded by vocal and facial expressions was demonstrated recently in a study comparing English North Americans and Chinese Liu et al. Introduction Communicating our feelings with one another is an integral part of human life, one that commonly involves two nonverbal information channels: facial expression and vocal expression Grandjean et al.

Method Participants The two groups of participants tested in our previous study Liu et al. Stimuli This study employed the same facial and vocal stimuli as Liu et al. Table 1 Mean recognition rates percent correct target identification and emotional intensity ratings of the vocal and facial stimuli by emotion and cultural group standard deviation in parentheses. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Task and Design An Oddball task composed of three experimental conditions was presented.

Procedure In all three conditions, each block started with a ms fixation cross presented at the center of the monitor, followed by the sequence of trials that were presented pseudo-randomly such that two deviant trials never appeared in immediate succession, and at least three standard trials appeared in a row between two deviant ones.

Figure 2. EEG Recording and Preprocessing After preparation for EEG recording, participants were seated approximately 65 cm in front of a computer monitor in a dimly lit, sound-attenuated, electrically-shielded testing booth. Statistical Analyses Based on our hypothesis, the vMMN component was of sole interest in the analyses. Wherever a business establishes itself, growth and expansion will likely lead to engagement with customers, colleagues and competitors from a different cultural background.

Managing cultural differences in business is essential for those who want to participate internationally and succeed globally. Businesses experience cultural differences for a number of reasons. When a company does business internationally, it is likely to bring its workers into contact with a new culture, either by adding an overseas office or bringing on workers with different cultural backgrounds to help with the expansion.

Another situation involves contract labor, with specialists from another cultural background coming in, sometimes on a temporary basis, to support an existing workforce. General trends toward multiculturalism, including immigration and emerging economies, also increase the amount of cultural difference in business. One of the key ways cultural difference reveals itself in business is through communication methods. Each culture has its own approach to communicating and collaborating to solve problems.

High-context communication, which is a normal means of communicating in some cultures, relies on previous knowledge and a high level of context for the communication to make sense. On the other hand, low-context communication is common in other cultures and supplies a great deal of information that listeners are expected to interpret as meaningful to the main point of a statement.

The Importance of Cultural Sensitivity and Awareness

JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Save For Later Print. Given that most agricultural businesses work with people from two or more different cultural backgrounds at the same time, it is important to promote effective communication among employees and employers.

But communication in all of its facets has many implications and potential barriers, as it includes both verbal language and non-verbal gestures, personal space, etc. Within the workplace, internal communication mission statement, vision, training, meetings, etc. The main barrier in verbal communication is the language, in which language differences themselves are not the only problem, but also the understanding that it is the responsibility of both parties to learn enough of the other language to communicate with others.

It is equally important to be clear, concise and avoid idioms that could cause misinterpretation of the message or could even be offensive to another person. These misconceptions or offenses usually occur in nonverbal communication because even though there are emblematic gestures gesture of peace, thumb up, etc.

Another important issue is personal space. In Latin American it is common for conversation to happen with a fairly short distance between people, unlike North American culture, where personal space is of greater importance.

A good way to politely establish a comfortable space is with a handshake. To accomplish this, the most important thing is to first ensure that senior managers adequately understand the project goals and expectations.

This creates unity and consistency among team members. Similarly it is crucial to 1 train all employees consistently regardless of rank or hierarchical level, 2 encourage teamwork and pride in the outcome of a project, and 3 organize regular staff meetings to enhance communication.

All of the suggestions above are directly related to the concept of intercultural communication. These methods are an important part of the empathy and effort that must be realized day to day in order to improve and maintain professional relationships, the workplace and, importantly, production and profits. Unfortunately, many people live in the misconception that they are empathetic with other cultures when the reality is very different.

To better understand our own personal outlook we must ask ourselves if we've used any of these phrases lately or ever at all:. By engaging in or stating our own generalizations of people from a country, race or religion, we actively perpetuate or create stereotypes. These are generally extremely negative, and restrict our ability to relate to any individuals outside our own culture. Culture will always be involved when discussing and understanding the human being; to lack knowledge of others' customs, values, and habits leads to poor communication and a lack of sensitivity.

This causes negative reactions, and even worse, negative consequences. Finally, the fact that people from other cultures work differently does not mean they are wrong--they still may accomplish the desired results. In good intercultural communication, understanding depends on the ability to perceive, react and accept differences and similarities.

The developmental model of intercultural sensitivity by Milton J. Bennett explains this in six stages--three of them ethnocentric, and three of them ethnorelative. Developmental model of intercultural sensitivity by Milton J. The first stage defines ethnocentrism as the attitude or point of view by which the world is analyzed according to the parameters of our own culture.

It often involves the belief that one's own ethnic group is the most important, or that some or all aspects of our culture are superior to those of other cultures. The stages of ethnocentrism are:. The second stage is ethnorelativism , a learned skill, where a person consciously recognizes values and behaviors as a cultural matter rather than a universal one.

The stages of ethno-relativism are:. The concept of developing intercultural sensitivity reflects that our perception is flexible, and we all have the ability to reformulate our sensitivity according to new experiences. Thank you for your submission! Home Cultural Sensitivity in the Workplace. Cultural Sensitivity in the Workplace. Cultural sensitivity is a set of skills that enables us to learn about and understand people who are different from ourselves, thereby becoming better able to serve them within their own communities.

Photo by T. Challenges to Effective Communication The main barrier in verbal communication is the language, in which language differences themselves are not the only problem, but also the understanding that it is the responsibility of both parties to learn enough of the other language to communicate with others.

The best tools for effective internal communication in a bi-cultural environment are: Posters: an inexpensive and effective resource. Posters should be bilingual and located in places that receive the most traffic in the company. Employee Manual. The advantage of such a manual is that the mission statement and vision of the organization as well as company policies can be incorporated into a single document.

A company newsletter creates a constant flow of communication. Cost can be reduced if it is sent electronically to employees who request it. How do I know if I am culturally sensitive? Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity In good intercultural communication, understanding depends on the ability to perceive, react and accept differences and similarities.

The stages of ethnocentrism are: Denial: recognizing cultural differences perceived by the naked eye schedules, holidays, food, dress, etc. Defense: criticizing other cultures with negative or derogatory terms as a result of feeling threatened, which leads to negative stereotypes, prejudices and discriminatory attitudes. Minimization: thinking that values and behavior are universal principles and are equal to one's own. The stages of ethno-relativism are: Acceptance: recognizing that cultural differences must be respected in order to improve interactions We may not agree with a specific cultural practice or difference but we respect a co-worker's values.

Adaptation: to be able to change a cultural outlook or behavior, which improves understanding and communication in different cultural contexts. Integration: an effort to integrate different cultural elements and feel comfortable with multi-cultural situations.

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Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences

Halliburton sensitive to cultural differences