Hiv infection disease-HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Infection | HealthLink BC

The immune system is the part of the body that fights infection and disease. For information on HIV drug coverage in B. They recommend more frequent testing for people who belong to populations that have a greater chance of having HIV, are pregnant, experience a change in their health that suggests HIV, or if someone requests a test. HIV human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that attacks the immune system , the body's natural defence system. Without a strong immune system, the body has trouble fighting off disease.

Hiv infection disease

Hiv infection disease

Is there a cure for HIV? Archived from the original on May 24, HIV hurts the immune system by destroying cells that fight infections. HIV medications. Archived from the original on June 18, Don't be afraid Hiv infection disease discuss the disease. Department of Health and Solo mpg tgp Services. A woman who is infected with HIV can spread the virus to her baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Dusease and Infrction Policy. Does not breastfeed her baby.

Blonde babe in stocklings. About HIV & AIDS

Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. Archived PDF from the original on October 25, National Health Services. You need to take the drugs every day. Retrieved June 23, Want to stay abreast of changes in prevention, care, treatment or research Blonde nude women other public health arenas that affect our collective response to the HIV epidemic? February 12, Hiv infection disease Hepadnaviridae Hepatitis B virus Caulimoviridae. Regions in the LTR act as switches to control production of new viruses and can be triggered by proteins from either HIV or the host cell. Sexual Health. Swiss Medical Weekly.

These special cells help the immune system fight off infections.

  • Learn basic information about HIV, how it is transmitted, how you can protect yourself and others, and how to live well with HIV.
  • HIV human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases.
  • Research has shown for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples that HIV is untransmissable through condomless sexual intercourse if the HIV-positive partner has a consistently undetectable viral load.
  • HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex including anal and oral sex , contaminated blood transfusions , hypodermic needles , and from mother to child during pregnancy , delivery, or breastfeeding.
  • These special cells help the immune system fight off infections.

HIV is a virus that damages the immune system. The immune system helps the body fight off infections. Over time, as HIV kills more CD4 cells, the body is more likely to get various types of infections and cancers. HIV is a lifelong condition and currently there is no cure, although many scientists are working to find one. At that point, the immune system is too weak to fight off other diseases and infections.

Untreated, life expectancy with AIDS is about three years. With antiretroviral therapy, HIV can be well-controlled and life expectancy can be nearly the same as someone who has not contracted HIV. HIV can cause changes throughout the body. Learn about the effects of HIV on the different systems in the body. HIV kills CD4 cells. Healthy adults generally have a CD4 count of to 1, per cubic millimeter.

An opportunistic infection, such as pneumonia, is one that takes advantage of a unique situation, such as HIV. This may be shorter if the person develops a severe opportunistic illness. However, treatment with antiretroviral drugs can prevent AIDS from developing.

If AIDS does develop, it means that the immune system is severely compromised. That makes the person vulnerable to a wide range of illnesses, including:. A person with a count below is considered to have AIDS. How quickly a case of HIV progresses through the chronic stage varies significantly from person to person.

Without treatment, it can last up to a decade before advancing to AIDS. With treatment, it can last indefinitely. There is no cure for HIV, but it can be controlled. People with HIV often have a near-normal lifespan with early treatment with antiretroviral therapy.

This point is a count of or higher. Also, treatment can typically help manage opportunistic infections. The virus can also be transmitted through a blood transfusion or organ and tissue transplant. However, rigorous testing for HIV among blood, organ, and tissue donors ensures that this is very rare in the United States. Learn more about HIV transmission. HIV is a variation of a virus that infects African chimpanzees.

Scientists suspect the simian immunodeficiency virus SIV jumped from chimps to humans when people consumed infected chimpanzee meat.

Once inside the human population, the virus mutated into what we now know as HIV. This likely occurred as long ago as the s. HIV spread from person to person throughout Africa over the course of several decades.

Eventually, the virus migrated to other parts of the world. Scientists first discovered HIV in a human blood sample in Healthy individuals have a CD4 count of to 1, per cubic millimeter. Several different tests can be used to diagnose HIV. Healthcare providers determine which test is best for each person.

They can show positive results typically within 18—45 days after someone initially contracts HIV. These tests check the blood for antibodies and antigens. An antibody is a type of protein the body makes to fight an infection. An antigen, on the other hand, is the part of the virus that activates the immune system. These tests check the blood solely for antibodies. Between 23 and 90 days after transmission, most people will develop detectable HIV antibodies, which can be found in the blood or saliva.

If they have a positive result, they should follow up with their healthcare provider to confirm. It takes from 5 to 21 days for HIV to be detectable in the blood. This test is usually accompanied or confirmed by an antibody test.

Learn more about HIV home testing options. As soon as someone contracts HIV, it starts to reproduce in their body. Most people develop detectable HIV antibodies within 23 to 90 days after infection. However, they can still transmit the virus to others during this time. If someone thinks they may have been exposed to HIV but tested negative during this time, they should repeat the test in a few months to confirm the timing depends on the test used.

And during that time, they need to use condoms to prevent possibly spreading HIV. Someone who tests negative during the window might benefit from post-exposure prophylaxis PEP. This is medication taken after an exposure to prevent getting HIV. PEP needs to be taken as soon as possible after the exposure; it should be taken no later than 72 hours after exposure, but ideally before then.

Timing is important when testing for HIV. Learn more about how timing affects HIV test results. The first few weeks after someone contracts HIV is called the acute infection stage. During this time, the virus reproduces rapidly. These are proteins that fight infection. During this stage, some people have no symptoms at first. This is because symptoms of the acute stage can be very similar to those of the flu or other seasonal viruses.

They may be mild to severe, they may come and go, and they may last anywhere from a few days to several weeks. Because these symptoms are similar to common illnesses like the flu, the person with them might not think they need to see a healthcare provider. And even if they do, their healthcare provider might suspect the flu or mononucleosis and might not even consider HIV. Whether a person has symptoms or not, during this period their viral load is very high.

The viral load is the amount of HIV found in the bloodstream. A high viral load means that HIV can be easily transmitted to someone else during this time. Initial HIV symptoms usually resolve within a few months as the person enters the chronic, or clinical latency, stage of HIV. This stage can last many years or even decades with treatment. HIV symptoms can vary from person to person. Learn more about the early symptoms of HIV. After the first month or so, HIV enters the clinical latency stage.

This stage can last from a few years to a few decades. As with the early stage, HIV is still infectious during this time even without symptoms and can be transmitted to another person. HIV symptoms at this stage may come and go, or they may progress rapidly. This progression can be slowed substantially with treatment.

With the consistent use of this antiretroviral therapy, chronic HIV can last for decades and will likely not develop into AIDS, if treatment was started early enough. Learn more about how HIV symptoms can progress over time.

About 90 percent of people with HIV experience changes to their skin. Rash is often one of the first symptoms of HIV infection. Generally, an HIV rash appears as multiple small red lesions that are flat and raised. HIV makes someone more susceptible to skin problems because the virus destroys immune system cells that fight infection. Co-infections that can cause rash include:. While rash can be caused by HIV co-infections, it can also be caused by medication. Some drugs used to treat HIV or other infections can cause a rash.

This type of rash usually appears within a week or two of starting a new medication. Sometimes the rash will clear up on its own. Rash due to an allergic reaction to medication can be serious. Other symptoms of an allergic reaction include trouble breathing or swallowing, dizziness, and fever.

Symptoms include fever and swelling of the face and tongue. A blistering rash, which can involve the skin and mucous membranes, appears and spreads quickly.

If this develops, emergency medical care is needed. Learn more about HIV rash. These symptoms can come and go or get progressively worse. These include gonorrhea , chlamydia , syphilis , and trichomoniasis. Men may be more likely than women to notice symptoms of STIs such as sores on their genitals. Learn more about HIV symptoms in men.

For the most part, symptoms of HIV are similar in men and women.

February 12, As the newly produced Rev protein is produced it moves to the nucleus, where it binds to full-length, unspliced copies of virus RNAs and allows them to leave the nucleus. Archived from the original on July 13, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Bibcode : Sci The World Health Organization recommends treating all children less than 5 years of age; children above 5 are treated like adults. Desrosiers RC ed.

Hiv infection disease

Hiv infection disease. What Is HIV?

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HIV | Infectious Diseases

These cells help the body fight infections. These are called opportunistic infections. HIV is spread through certain body fluids, such as blood and semen. The most common way to get HIV is through unprotected sex with someone who is infected. A woman can pass HIV to her child during pregnancy or childbirth. A person with HIV has the virus for life because it stays in the body. There is no cure. With treatment, a person with HIV has the ability to live a normal and healthy life. See a doctor immediately if you have been exposed to HIV.

HIV may be prevented if a certain medicine is taken within 72 hours of exposure. Only HIV testing will tell you if you have the infection. About 1 in 7 Americans with HIV is not aware they have it.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 gets tested for HIV at least once. People who believe they may have been exposed to HIV or who are at higher risk for HIV should consider getting tested more frequently.

Talk to your doctor about which test is best for you. Follow up with your doctor if you have an HIV test that comes back positive shows you have the virus. HIV may be prevented if a certain medicine is taken within 72 hours of exposure to the virus. However, certain medicines can slow down the spread of the virus. This is called antiretroviral therapy ART.

This therapy can keep you healthy for many years and reduce your chances of giving HIV to someone else. The sooner you start treatment, the better it will work to keep you healthier longer. Some forms of HIV are resistant to antiretroviral medicines. You can reduce the risk of drug-resistant HIV by taking your medicine exactly as prescribed. Not having oral, vaginal, or anal sex is the only sure way to prevent HIV infections.

However, the risk of getting an HIV infection is much lower if you:. The best thing you can do to prevent spreading HIV is to get ART and take your medicine exactly as the doctor tells you.

When you suppress the virus, you reduce the chance that you will spread it to someone else. Intermountain Healthcare is a Utah-based, not-for-profit system of 24 hospitals includes "virtual" hospital , a Medical Group with more than 2, physicians and advanced practice clinicians at about clinics, a health plans division called SelectHealth, and other health services.

Helping people live the healthiest lives possible, Intermountain is widely recognized as a leader in clinical quality improvement and efficient healthcare delivery. Which should I choose? Symptoms of HIV infection depend on the stage of infection.

Early stage of HIV. Some people have no symptoms during this stage. Some people have flu-like symptoms within the first 2 to 4 weeks after being infected.

The virus is slowly establishing itself in the body during this stage, so most people either have no symptoms or have mild symptoms of feeling unwell. This phase can last as long as 10 years or more even without treatment. A person who is in the clinical latency stage can still spread the virus.

But those who are receiving treatment are much less likely to spread it than those with no treatment. AIDS development stage. At this stage, the virus has weakened the immune system and the person begins to have serious symptoms.

These symptoms may include: Weight loss Regular fever Night sweats Extreme tiredness Swollen glands in the armpits, groin, or neck that stay swollen Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week Sores in the mouth, anus, or genitals Pneumonia Red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids Cognitive and mental health problems, like depression and memory loss.

HIV infections are caused by the HIV virus that can spread: Through anal or vaginal sex with someone who is infected, or by sharing needles or other equipment for injecting drugs. From a mother to a child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. All pregnant women should be tested for HIV. When people get stuck with a needle contaminated by HIV. This is a risk mainly for health care professionals and is not very common. Through other means that put their blood in contact with infected blood or semen.

For example, a person could become infected during oral sex, especially if the person has an open sore in the mouth. Rarely, from a blood transfusion because of how carefully donated blood is tested now. To test for HIV infection, these tests are available: Rapid antibody test. These tests use blood from a finger prick or saliva to test for HIV antibodies blood proteins produced in response to the infection.

These tests can be done in a clinic or in other places, and results are ready in 30 minutes or less. There is also a self-test kit you can do by swabbing your mouth for saliva. Some home kits also use a finger prick to collect a blood sample.

You send these tests to a lab when you are done. This test is not as good at finding HIV in the very early stages. This test uses a blood draw from your vein to look for HIV antibodies and antigens. Antibodies are made by your immune system and are a sign that your body is trying to fight HIV. Antigens are things that cause your immune system to become active and ready to fight.

An antigen called p24 is produced with HIV infection. This test can find infection 2 to 6 weeks after being infected. This test looks for the HIV virus in your blood. In addition to telling you whether HIV is present in your blood, this test can tell the viral load— how much of the virus is there. This test is expensive and is used mostly for people who are at high risk and believe they were exposed to the virus.

This test can detect HIV from 1 to 4 weeks after infection. However, the risk of getting an HIV infection is much lower if you: Use a condom for anal or vaginal sex. Use a male condom or female condom every time you have sex. Receptive anal sex receiving anal sex is the riskiest type of sex for HIV. Limit the number of sexual partners you have. Having fewer partners lowers your chances of having sex with someone infected with HIV.

Talk to your doctor about pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEP. You should call your doctor right away or go to the emergency room so you can start PEP within 3 days of an exposure Get tested, and encourage your sexual partners to do the same. You can take steps to prevent the spread of HIV when you know who is infected. Take your medicine to prevent spreading the infection to your baby. You can also reduce the chances of spreading the infection to the baby by not breastfeeding your baby.

Health and Human Services. HIV hurts the immune system by destroying cells that fight infections. The most common ways to get HIV is through unprotected sex with someone who is infected and sharing drug needles.

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Hiv infection disease

Hiv infection disease