Poor sperm motility-What If Your Semen Analysis Results Are Abnormal?

There are six main criteria for healthy sperm:. Sperm also need to have the right number of chromosomes for a successful pregnancy. A breakdown in any of these criteria can result in male-factor infertility. An estimated 15—20 percent of couples worldwide are affected by infertility. Of those, approximately 30—40 percent are infertile due to male factors, including sperm motility.

Poor sperm motility

Poor sperm motility

Conclusions The reduction of motile spermatozoa in mootility oligozoospermia decreased the rates of fertilization and good-quality embryo. Drugs are often tried first to treat this condition. Logistic regression analyzed embryological outcomes the Elder mature of fertilization, cleavage and good-quality embryo Poor sperm motility clinical outcomes the rates of pregnancy, implantation, early miscarriage and live birth. Other Groups' Resources. A review of ten years experience of ICSI.

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The shape of the sperm is called sperm morphology. Motility Measurements. If you can drink distilled water, it is even better. Smoking and drinking - excessive alcohol intake and use of tobacco products contribute to many health problems, so it should come as no surprise that they can both affect your sperm motility rate. Poor sperm motility or asthenozoospermia is diagnosed when less than 32 percent wperm the sperm are able to move efficiently. In this case, if the first ejaculate collected showed poor motility, a second ejaculate collected soon after should be better. Get pregnant fast! Some believe Poor sperm motility a certain combination of vitamins or a medication called Clomid may Poor sperm motility motility and sperm count. The results of the sperm analysis will determine which infertility treatments may work for the couple. The analysis assesses whether or not the sperm Spruce nude swimming properly and in a straight line. Sign Up. Low sperm motility does not have to mean the end of your journey toward conception. Please ssperm some images are of models, not actual patients.

You've had a semen analysis , and your results are considered abnormal.

  • Male fertility problem is mainly because of two reasons and these are: low sperm count and low sperm motility.
  • Quick Definition: The definition of motility is the ability of an organism or fluid to move.
  • Couples that have trouble conceiving naturally may want to look into fertility testing.
  • In this article, we look at the impact of sperm motility on fertility, as well as the causes of poor sperm motility, and what can be done to improve it.
  • There are six main criteria for healthy sperm:.

Leonards, NSW, Australia. Spermatozoa motility is the critical parameter to affect the treatment outcomes during assisted reproductive technologies ART , but its reproductive capability remains a little informed in condition of severe male factor infertility. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the effects of reduced sperm motility on the embryological and clinical outcomes in intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI treatment of severe oligozoospermia.

All female partners were younger than 35 years of age. Logistic regression analyzed embryological outcomes the rates of fertilization, cleavage and good-quality embryo and clinical outcomes the rates of pregnancy, implantation, early miscarriage and live birth. Quality of embryo transfer ET was divided into three classes as continuous factor to test the effects of embryo quality on clinical outcomes.

The cleavage rate of the derived zygotes was similar to the control. The rate of early miscarriage was not comparably different between groups. Overall rates in all groups were The reduction of motile spermatozoa in severe oligozoospermia decreased the rates of fertilization and good-quality embryo.

Obtaining and transfer of good-quality embryos was the good prognostic to achieve prospective clinical outcomes regardless of the severity of oligozoospermia.

Near half of infertility is due to inability of males to achieving pregnancy in a fertile female [ 1 , 2 ]. Many cases of male infertility are poorly understood and recent ability to diagnose these defects remains limited [ 3 — 5 ]. Clinically, the sperm parameters including motility, number and morphology are used to identify males with subfertility and infertility, which is commonly described as dominant parameters indicating the clinical outcomes of IVF and ICSI [ 6 , 7 ].

But male patients are not regularly followed up and the prognosis of the male infertility is a little informed. In a number of situations direct medical or surgical intervention can improve the sperm concentration and even pregnancy rate; examples are use of FSH follicle-stimulating hormone in men with pituitary hypogonadism, antibiotics in case of infections, or surgical corrections of a hydrocele, varicocele, or vas deferens obstruction [ 14 , 15 ].

Notably, the choice of treatment and management can be complex as the causes of the conditions are the fecundity of the female partner also to be considered. In many cases with oligozoospermia, IVF—ICSI is done and is often the best option, specifically if time is a factor or fertility problems coexist on the female side. Recent advances in ICSI technique can treat severe infertile men with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia, azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia [ 16 — 18 ] to achieve fatherhood.

However, in the case with extremely severe oligozoospermia, isolation and preparation of motile sperm for ICSI are difficult. Optional treatment of these cases is usually using testicular sperm extract TESE or donor sperm. The fact is that the parameter of TESE in the oligozoospermia patients without obstructive factor is obviously worse than the ejaculate semen, and immature TESE gametes may cause lower reproductive ability [ 19 , 20 ] and the risks of potential imprinting defects [ 21 — 23 ].

Utilization of own gametes instead of donors to become a biological parent is always an aspiration for the couple. Given the fact that ICSI technique theoretically requires only one piece of motile sperm to allow infertile men to achieve fatherhood [ 16 , 24 ], it is warranted to evaluate clinical outcomes of ICSI under extreme situations where only several pieces of motile sperm were found in one ejaculate in the severe male infertility.

However, conclusive data about the indication of motile sperm count on ICSI treatment of such cases remains limited. This retrospective study analyzed the outcomes of ICSI treatment of severe oligozoospermia by deep classification of its severity based on the number of motile sperm in one ejaculate on the day of oocyte retrieval. Without consideration of the influences that might be resulted from female partners, this study supplied a significantly indicative support for the utilization of ICSI technique in the treatment of severe male factor infertility.

The authors had had access to identifying information after data collection for this this S1 File. All female partners were younger than year old without any factors of female infertility other than fallopian tubes damage or blockage. Oligozoospermia was divided into five groups in according to sperm count and number of motile sperm in ejaculated semen.

The sperm parameter was assessed in according to evaluation of the semen parameters and processing of human semen [ 25 ]. Group B and C were defined in according to the number of motile sperm counted in one field.

Group D was recognized when at least one piece, but less than ten of motile sperm was observable in ten fields. The small pellet was re-suspended to count sperm with above methods. For those with dozens of sperm, total of the motile sperm in all fields was counted.

The urine including sperm from retrograde ejaculation was centrifuged immediately to obtain sperm pellet that was then suspended in 1 mL HEPES-modHTF for parameter assessment.

Proposed diagnosis and management of severe oligozoospermia were routinely performed in our center Fig 1. This was well organized and required good teamwork from andrologists, embryologists and clinicians. Differential diagnosis to exclude obstructive infertile factor, accurate classification of severe oligozoospermia at several stages, suitable medication to improve sperm motility, sperm cryopreservation, determining the timing entering ICSI cycle, management of excess oocytes and cancellation of ICSI attempt were key issues.

All male partners accepted karyotype examination and most of them were analyzed for azoospermia factor AZF microdeletion as well.

After differential diagnosis of obstructive azoospermia OA , severe oligozoospermia was classified in according to the number of motile sperm from at least two ejaculates 4 weeks prior to ICSI attempt by andrologists. Proper medication might improve sperm motility. Semen had to be examined again 2 weeks prior to ICSI attempt. The semen preparation and ICSI procedures were described [ 18 ].

The pellet was resuspended in 0. The first step was to collect motile sperm and then determined the number of oocytes to be microinjected. The excess oocytes might be microinjected with sperm from their own frozen pool or with donor sperm; otherwise they were cryopreserved.

The quality of ET was classified into three classes: Class I ET was performed with standard good-quality embryo s only; Class II with at least one good-quality embryo and the rest lower quality; Class III with all lower quality embryo s. Urinary HCG levels were measured two weeks after transfer to diagnose pregnancy. The clinical outcomes were assessed as described [ 18 ], and implantation rate was also reviewed. The rates of embryological and clinical outcomes were evaluated using binary logistic regression analysis with SPSS for Window Version The rates depending to the given landmark were set as the dichotomous dependent variable, and the oligozoospermia groups, ET classes and male age as covariates.

The oligozoospermia groups were also set as a categorical covariate to contrast the differences between the oligozoospermia groups and their interaction with other covariates. The number of MII oocytes, years of age and infertility duration and the number of ET were analyzed by Univariate analysis of variance.

Difference between individual oligozoospermia group was assessed by the least significance test where indicated. Characteristics of the patients in five oligozoospermia groups were summarized Table 1.

The results had been merged to our previous publication [ 18 ] and were not included in this study. The severity of this fertilization inability tended to be associated with the reducing number of the motile spermatozoa. Displayed were the mean and total number of microinjected MII oocytes, the mean rates and total number of fertilized 2PN oocytes, cleavage embryos and good-quality embryos in five groups of oligozoospermia.

Without consideration of ET classes, transferred embryos had similar ability to be pregnant and implanted in four groups of severe oligozoospermia and control and did not affect early miscarriage rate. As a consequence, the rate of live birth was not significantly different between five groups of oligozoospermia. The clinical outcomes were not statistically correlated with male age. Displayed was the classification of the embryo transfer and the clinical outcomes.

The mean, total cycle and total number of ET, the mean rate and number of pregnancy, implantation and live birth were displayed, based on the total cycles of three ET classes in five groups of oligozoospermia.

The rate of miscarriage was the mean of the proportion of miscarriage cycle in all of the pregnant cycles. The relevant p values were displayed in the text. Furthermore, ET classes were used as continuous factor for statistical analysis to test our hypothesis that transfer with good-quality embryo would reach prospective clinical outcomes in severe oligozoospermia Table 3.

The results showed that Class I ET achieved the similar clinical outcomes between five groups of oligozoospermia. There was no significant difference between baby genders. The excess embryos were cryopreserved and clinical outcomes from frozen embryo transfer FET were showed S2 File. The table was representative of achieved cycles of miscarriage and live-birth, and baby gender.

Karyotype was examined in all cases and no abnormality was found. In Grade E, excess oocytes were microinjected with donor sperm in 27 cycles. One of them was failed with testicular sperm extraction TESE. There were two cycles to try to use patient pooled sperm. One was failed to recover, and another had three of five oocytes fertilized, and the rest sibling oocytes were microinjected with donor sperm.

This study demonstrated the reduced number of motile spermatozoa had declined the fertility ability and embryo quality during ICSI treatment of severe oligozoospermia. The crucial finding was that the prospective clinical outcomes could be achieved as long as well selected good-quality embryos were transferred, regardless of whatever severity of oligozoospermia.

In contrast, transfer of lower quality embryos reduced the rates of pregnancy, implantation and live birth. This provided a well informed prognostic parameter for ART clinic. This study gave rise to a relatively conclusive insight into the objective of the retrospective analysis by deep classification of the severity of the disease in term of sperm motility.

Oligozoospermia is greatly due to testicular or spermatogenic failure [ 27 ]. Tendency to a gradual reduction of the fertilization rate associated with severity of oligozoospermia illustrated the spermatogenic function status in individual oligozoospermic patient. As a consequence, this deteriorated the quality of derived embryos and reduced the opportunity to choose good-quality embryo for transfer.

Overall analysis of clinical outcomes veiled the disadvantages of low quality ET, largely due to more than two embryos having been transferred with Class I ET in most cycles.

Analysis from cycles transferred with lower class ET unveiled the adverse clinical outcomes and this apparently occurred in Group C, D and E. The implantation rate is the important parameter to evaluate the ability of individual embryo to be implanted and was not associated with sperm motility in this study, suggesting relatively similar quality in individual good-quality embryo had been obtained in all groups so that it led to similar prospective rate of live birth.

Miscarriage is thought to have multiple etiologies, including parental chromosomal outubeanomalies, maternal thrombophilic disorders, immune dysfunction and various endocrine disturbances [ 28 ]. No statistical difference in the rate of early miscarriage was found between groups, because young and healthy female partners limited age-associated first trimester spontaneous miscarriage [ 29 , 30 ], and male age had no comparable effects on embryological and clinical outcomes.

In our center, this was mainly for the cases having difficulty of collecting by masturbation. Therefore an advanced cryopreservation for single sperm is worth creating.

TESE demonstrates the good results in azoospermia [ 32 ] and severe necrozoospermia [ 33 ], but it was found difficultly to be managed, especially for Group E and its superiority was also questioned [ 31 ]. Only one case of azoospermia occurred on ICSI day instead of using frozen sperm and donor sperm. Successful ICSI was greatly attributed to excellent management of the patients prior to ICSI attempt and appropriate manipulation of all procedures by experienced andrologists, embryologists and gynecologists Fig 1.

Arrangement of proper timing of cycle entrance is markedly crucial to avoid azoospermia due to the variations such as season, intercurrent disease and especially to fever [ 10 , 34 , 35 ] that can affect sperm count in the same subject. Conventional CASA semen parameter method was obviously not suitable for management of the severe oligozoospermia, particularly for Group E. Our modified procedures might be encouraged to increase opportunity to isolate more motile sperm by skipping the procedure of total sperm count.

However, excess eggs were still present in several cycles in Group E due to lack of enough motile sperm and an optional solution might be through a modified hyperovulation program to reduce the number of retrieved eggs. There has long been a concern if ICSI increases a rate of the birth defects in ICSI conceived children [ 36 ] due to potential risk of bypassing the natural selection mechanism, the transmission of mutations and current limitation of methodologies to accurately evaluate the individual sperm quality.

Sperm motility is its ability to swim progressively, which is vital for it to reach the mature female egg in the fallopian tube. In this case what happens is, the sperm barely make progress once they are ejaculated into the vagina. Okay, thank you. They include:. They may be anywhere from 2 to 4 weeks apart. A condition called varicocele occurs when veins inside the scrotum become enlarged.

Poor sperm motility

Poor sperm motility. related stories

The abnormal shape of the sperm head could include an abnormally large and misshaped head, which affects its ability to penetrate the egg. This could seriously hamper fertility. When the sperm are able to reach the egg, they are not able to penetrate it due to their deformed shape. The shape of normal sperm is such that it can penetrate the egg with some effort of pushing and knocking against the egg.

The sperm tail helps to build up force. Any abnormality in the sperm shape hampers its ability to enter the egg. The sperm count is the concentration of sperm in the semen. Sperm motility is its ability to swim progressively, which is vital for it to reach the mature female egg in the fallopian tube. Sperm vitality, which is the activeness of sperm is also important because lazy sperm does not bother to move.

It is only the active sperm that will make the trip to the fallopian tubes in search of the egg. The shape of the sperm is called sperm morphology. If the sperm morphology is inhibiting the female partner from conceiving naturally, then the couple has to look for alternate options to getting pregnant. In this treatment, the mature eggs are extracted from the female partner by stimulating her ovaries with hormone injections.

When the eggs are mature, which is around the ovulation period, the eggs are extracted from the ovaries. Using a reproductive technology such as in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination IUI can help increase the chance of pregnancy.

This is because they bypass the need for the sperm to swim on their own. Your doctor can test you and your partner to determine if there are any health conditions affecting fertility.

Your doctor will then determine next steps. Infertility has long been thought of as primarily a female issue outside medical circles. Yet both male and female factor fertility issues contribute…. Alcohol, even in moderate amounts, can affect your sexual health. It can lead to loss of libido and infertility in both men and women.

Learn more…. Infertility is a problem for many men. Here are 10 science-backed ways to increase sperm count and enhance overall fertility in men. Nux vomica can affect the nervous system, and is most often used to treat conditions that are acute, or develop rapidly and have a short course.

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Sperm motility and pregnancy. There are different types of sperm motility issues, including: slow or sluggish progressive motility non-progressive motility, which is defined as anything less than 5 micrometers per second no mobility Sperm speed and gender: Fact or fiction? In addition to sperm motility, your doctor can also use a semen analysis to test: the health of the male genital tract accessory organs ejaculation.

Some lifestyle changes may help increase sperm motility for some men: exercise regularly maintain a healthy weight limit cell phone exposure reduce alcohol quit smoking Some supplements may also help improve sperm motility. Does Alcohol Kill Sperm? And Other Fertility Facts. Read this next. Medically reviewed by Michael Charles, MD.

Sperm Motility: Causes, Treatment, and More

You've had a semen analysis , and your results are considered abnormal. Maybe your sperm count is low, or maybe your test results have found poor sperm motility or morphology. What does this mean? What's next? The most important thing to know is that one poor result doesn't necessarily mean you're infertile. Your semen analysis can be affected by recent illness, anxiety over the exam, and other various factors. Not abstaining from ejaculation for the three to four days before your test can also alter the results.

Your doctor will likely order one or two follow-up tests about two to three months after the first, to see if the abnormal results repeat. It's also important to remember that the semen analysis results need to be considered together.

In other words, if the only abnormal finding is a high white blood cell count, but other semen parameters are normal, and there are no other signs of infection, then your results may, in fact, be considered normal. Edward Marut of Fertility Centers of Illinois. Before you experienced infertility, you may have only been familiar with sperm count.

You likely knew that having a low sperm count is a problem. You may not have been aware of the many other ways sperm or semen can be abnormal. This is when there is no ejaculate and no sperm. This is not the same as azoospermia discussed below where there is semen but no sperm. The man may experience an orgasm, but there may be no ejaculate released.

Aspermia may occur because of retrograde ejaculation, a genetic disorder like with Klinefelter syndrome or cystic fibrosis , congenital abnormalities of the reproductive tract, hormonal imbalance, diabetes, post-testicular cancer treatment, or severe sexual dysfunction.

Aspermia severely affects male fertility. However, having a genetic child may still be possible. In some cases, the cause of aspermia can be treated. This is when the total ejaculate is low, or less than 1. That's less than a third of a teaspoon. Hypospermia may be caused by many of the same things that cause aspermia. Most commonly, though, hypospermia is caused by retrograde ejaculation. Retrograde ejaculation is when semen goes backward into the bladder instead of going out the urethra.

The semen may appear completely normal otherwise. This can only be diagnosed with the help of semen analysis. The most common causes of azoospermia include genetic disorders, congenital anomalies of the male reproductive tract, and obstruction of the seminal tracts. Some untreated sexually transmitted infections can cause obstructions that lead to azoospermia. Azoospermia can also occur post-testicular cancer treatment. Azoospermia may also be caused by a hormonal imbalance, severe sexual dysfunction, or an infection of mumps orchitis, but these cases are rare.

Oligozoospermia is when sperm count is lower than normal. It may be further described as being mild, moderate, severe or extreme oligozoospermia. Extreme oligozoospermia is sometimes called cyrptozoospermia. Frequently, when sperm count is low, other problems with sperm health are also present, including problems with sperm movement and sperm shape. More on these sperm factors below.

There are many possible causes of low sperm count, including the presence of a varicocele, hormonal imbalance, reproductive tract abnormalities, undescended testicles, untreated diabetes or celiac disease, an underlying infection of the reproductive tract, previous cancer treatment, and genetic disorders. Some medications can impact sperm count. Environmental conditions, work-related exposure, and lifestyle choices can also cause low sperm count. For example, overheating of the testicles like from frequent hot tub use , exposure to toxic chemicals at work, smoking, obesity, or recreational drug and alcohol use can reduce sperm counts.

In some cases, lifestyle changes may improve sperm count enough to improve fertility. That said, in the vast majority of cases, a specific cause for low sperm count is never found. Oligozoospermia is the most common reason for subfertility in men. Men with mild or moderate oligozoospermia may still be able to father a child naturally. However, the lower the sperm count, the less likely it is that the couple will have pregnancy success without the help of fertility treatments.

It may also take longer to get pregnant. Normal sperm should move in a progressive direction. A progressive direction is defined as in a straight line or very larger circles.

Usually, poor sperm motility goes along with low sperm count. Many of the things that can cause low sperm count also may lead to asthenozoospermia. Possible causes include exposure to toxins, poor nutrition, illness, recreational drug use, excessive alcohol intake, or smoking. Some medications can cause poor sperm motility.

Even though the World Health Organization defines poor sperm motility by the percentage of properly moving sperm, research has found that the total number of motile sperm is a better measure of fertility.

According to this research, men with less than 5 million motile sperm would be considered having severe male infertility, those with 5 to 20 million would be regarded as moderately infertile, and those with over 20 million motile sperm would be considered normal. Teratozoospermia is when a large percentage of sperm have an abnormal shape.

Sperm morphology is the shape of the sperm. Normal sperm should have an oval head with a long tail. Abnormal sperm may have an oddly shaped head, more than one head, or more than one tail. If the sperm are not of normal shape, they may be unable to fertilize the egg.

Sperm shape is essential to the ability of the sperm to move or swim. Poor sperm morphology may be caused by a variety of genetic causes. In rare cases, some specific genetic causes will lead to all the sperm to be the same abnormal shape. For example, globozoospermia is a specific kind of teratozoospermia where the sperm head is round instead of oval in shape. This is caused by a specific genetic mutation. Also, many of the things that cause poor sperm shape can also cause poor sperm motility or low sperm count.

See above. Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia OAT is when all sperm parameters are abnormal. In other words, sperm count, movement, and shape are all problematic. This is the most common cause of male infertility. OAT can be mild, moderate, or severe. The severity of the situation will determine prognosis and possible treatments. This is not the same as severe asthenozoospermia, which all the sperm are non-moving but still alive.

The treatments are different. ICSI is when a sperm cell is directly injected into an egg, to hopefully allow for fertilization. If the sperm is dead, however, like it is with necrozoospermia, this treatment is not an option. In this case, your doctor will remove immature but viable sperm cells directly from your testicles, mature them in the lab, and then use them for IVF-ICSI.

Leukocytospermia is when there is a high count of white blood cells in the semen. This is also known as pyospermia. That said, high levels of white blood cells may lead to sperm damage, which can decrease fertility.

High white blood cell count can indicate possible infection or, in some cases, an autoimmune disease. Many of the causes of low sperm count can also cause leukocytospermia as well. Semen analysis normal and abnormal ranges are based on percentiles.

In other words, what percentage of men had this particular result and went on to father a child within a year. Your semen health may be considered subpar, but you may still be able to conceive with those subpar numbers. Semen analysis is not a test of fertility , but a tool used to investigate possible causes of infertility. Low sperm count, for example, is not a diagnosis itself, but a symptom that can be only discovered through semen analysis.

There are a variety of causes for low sperm count, and sometimes, a cause is never found. If your semen analysis shows low sperm count, your doctor's next goal will be to investigate why this may be occurring, and what can be done to help you and your partner have a baby.

As stated above, your doctor will want to repeat the semen analysis again. If you had trouble producing a sample , your doctor may suggest doing so via intercourse, using a specialized condom meant for the collection of semen samples. Don't use a regular condom! It can kill sperm, even without added spermicide. Beyond the basic semen analysis, depending on testing results , your doctor may also order:. After additional testing, your doctor may recommend treatment to improve your semen health. This may include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.

Another possibility is that your doctor will recommend considering a sperm donor. Sperm regenerates every three months while we are born with our entire supply of eggs. If a positive action is made—ceasing cannabis use, losing weight, halting excess alcohol intake—we will see a benefit from that action.

Poor sperm motility

Poor sperm motility