Slavery dominican republic hispanola-Dominican Republic History:

All Rights Reserved. Articles Home - History. Shortly after, in August , Columbus left the port of Palos, Spain in search of a new trade route to India. After four months of aimless sailing across the Atlantic, Columbus finally had hope of making his voyage a success. Their first sighting of land was on 12th October, one of the islands of what is now the Bahamas.

Slavery dominican republic hispanola

Slavery dominican republic hispanola

So that news of the slaughter would not leak out, Trujillo clamped tight censorship on all mail and news dispatches. After exploring the island and meeting the Taino chieftains of Hispaniola, Columbus decided to head back to Spain, taking back samples that reflected life in the New World. Refusing to back down, Trujillo lashed out at Catholic priests who read Slavery dominican republic hispanola pastoral letter from the pulpit asking for merciful treatment of political opponents. By continuing to use our site, you accept our use of cookies and Privacy Policy. The crown progressively relaxed the rigid controls and restrictions on commerce between Spain and the colonies and among the colonies. InU. Induring the French Revolutiona major slave revolt broke out on Saint-Domingue.

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By the time U. Abolition in the British colonies led to the flight of slaves, notably from nearby French colonies, always a large-scale point of departure. Columbus' introduction of cattle and pigs to the island had multiplied rapidly, so the remaining inhabitants turned their attention to raising livestock to supply Spanish ships passing by the island en route to the richer colonies on the American mainland. Namespaces Article Talk. Without adequate roads, the regions Hard disk partition configurations the Dominican Republic developed in isolation from one another. During his remaining time as president, he took action to save most savers of the closed banks, avoiding a major crisis. The missile tracking station and the military mission were the strongest Cold War ties between the United States and the Dominican Republic, but they became liabilities as the relationship soured. October 13, Abolition and independence Whatever the case, it is important to underline that slavery constitutes a strong element Slavery dominican republic hispanola the construction of national identities across the Caribbean. In practice, emancipation in the British islands was achieved in by The impact on the Dominican economy was devastating.

W hen Haiti was hit by the devastating earthquake in , its island neighbour, the Dominican Republic , rushed to help.

  • The recorded history of the Dominican Republic began when the Genoa -born navigator Christopher Columbus , working for the Spanish Crown, happened upon a large island in the region of the western Atlantic Ocean that later came to be known as the Caribbean.
  • Asthma, measles, tetanus, whooping cough, tuberculosis, polio and diphtheria Allergic diseases.
  • Enslavement of African people was widespread in the colonial Americas, and one of the most brutal slave labor systems was on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola.
  • It is the most populous island in the West Indies and the region's second largest after Cuba.
  • The History Section was revised and edited by Dr.
  • In the Caribbean, as across the rest of the world, the 19 th century was the century of the successive abolitions of slavery.

All Rights Reserved. Articles Home - History. Shortly after, in August , Columbus left the port of Palos, Spain in search of a new trade route to India. After four months of aimless sailing across the Atlantic, Columbus finally had hope of making his voyage a success. Their first sighting of land was on 12th October, one of the islands of what is now the Bahamas.

Columbus named it San Salvador, and then went on to explore Cuba. Following his initial meeting with the indigenous tribe that lived on Hispaniola, the Taino Indians, Columbus proceeded to claim the island for the Spanish crown.

December 12 marked the founding of a temporary settlement called La Concepcion, and it was during these first moments on the island that Columbus met the Taino Chieftain Guacanagari, who was to help Columbus in his endeavors. After exploring the island and meeting the Taino chieftains of Hispaniola, Columbus decided to head back to Spain, taking back samples that reflected life in the New World. Along with items like tobacco, pineapples, hammocks and peppers, which the Taino called aji; Columbus also took a group of Taino Indians and put them on display for the royal Spanish court, as a symbol of his voyage.

As Columbus departed for Spain in January of , he left behind a group of 39 men who would eventually found the first settlement on Hispaniola, called La Navidad. La Navidad was built using the shipwrecked Santa Maria, which had sunk off the north coast, as Columbus returned to Spain. Columbus would make three more trips to Hispaniola before his death. Each trip was spent on preparing the island for a full Spanish conquest. On November 2, Columbus arrived back on his second trip leading 1, people in 17 ships to begin the conquest of the Indies and the mainland.

When Columbus returned in November he was surprised to learn that the settlement he had left behind was no longer. Some of the 39 men had clashed with the Taino Indians, and were killed.

Other crewmembers had become sick, unable to cope with the harsh environment of the Caribbean. As the underlying justification for the conquest of the New World, religion became an important practice in the Spanish colonies, and on January 6, the first mass in the New World was officiated in an improvised chapel. As time progressed, small settlements were founded across the island, and the heart of the Spanish conquest in the New World, Hispaniola, began to develop accordingly.

In April a settlement on the northern coast called La Isabela was founded in what is now the province of Puerto Plata, and in Concepcion de la Vega was founded.

This event, though minor, would come to represent the bad luck that was to plague the Spanish settlement on Hispaniola. As development of all new settlements continued at a rapid pace, it was the labor of the indigenous population that built Hispaniola, but at a cost. By the Spanish crown declared that the natives should not be mistreated, and in Nicolas de Ovando, the new governor of Hispaniola, and Bartolome de las Casas, defender of the natives and 'Cronista de Indias' chronicler of the Indies arrived on Hispaniola.

The paradise that Columbus had come across on his first voyage of was not to last. The Taino population on the island was quickly decimated by the new presence of European diseases, like smallpox, which they had no protection from.

On subsequent voyages, in order to gain more funding for his travels, and under pressure to pay off the creditors who had funded his previous voyages, Columbus introduced a slave system, which can only be described as brutal. The Taino population quickly dwindled, leading to one of the most significant events in New World history.

In , at the insistence of Bartolome de las Casas, who would later recant his statements, the first set of African slaves was brought from the West Coast of Africa, marking the start of the Atlantic Slave Trade.

In December , Fray Anton de Montesinos cried out his famous sermon in defense of the natives, but this was all in vain, as history began to take its course. By , 20 years after the Spanish had landed on Hispaniola, the Taino population had shrunk to an estimated 60, natives. By the native population was down to 11, and by , after a measles outbreak, the native population was down to 8, As fewer and fewer indigenous communities remained, war was the only survival option for the remaining natives.

Beginning in , Enriquillo, a Taino convert to Christianity who had been mentored by Bartolome de las Casas, led what became a year war against the Spaniards, in the hope of freeing his people and expelling the Spaniards. In , in order to curb the threat of buccaneers and pirates, Fortaleza Ozama the first military fort in the New World was begun, and completed by The development of the settlements in the New World was marked by some great achievements.

In the year construction of the Alcazar palace was begun, and finished in In the construction of the Metropolitan Cathedral was begun in Santo Domingo, and marked the founding of the first university of the New World, by decree of a papal bull. Though there were magnificent successes on Hispaniola, the continued presence of the Spanish on the island was marked by devastating events and tremendous bad luck. In French corsairs attacked and burned the village of Azua, leading to the decision to construct the Santo Domingo city walls in , to protect it from pirates and corsairs.

Corsair John Hawkins was one of the larger human traders, selling many shiploads of slaves in Puerto Plata. In Francis Drake invaded and burned Santo Domingo, and a earthquake damaged Santo Domingo, leaving the city in ruins. By the north and western parts of the island had become totally unpopulated, and this continued through most of the island.

By San Juan de la Maguana and Neiba in the south had also become unpopulated. By the late 17th century the Spanish settlement on Hispaniola had become increasingly unprofitable, unstable, and was consequently neglected by the Spanish. Coupled with the fact that gold had be found in what is now Central America and Mexico, and that the Spanish crown was bankrupt, the importance of Hispaniola as the Spanish jewel in the New World quickly diminished.

By , without much opposition from the Spanish, the French began their occupation of the western side of Hispaniola, or what is now Haiti, and in the Ryswick peace agreement legalized the French occupation of western Hispaniola. The late 18th century was marked by uncertainty and uprisings.

Though Hispaniola had been neglected by Spain, and become a shadow of its successful past, Haiti blossomed in the 18th century, and this affected the eastern side of Hispaniola directly. Slavery was eventually abolished in , and a growing collective of white, black and mulatto soldiers led by a former slave, Toussaint Louverture, was to define the course of history for all of Hispaniola.

The Treaty of Basil was signed in July , and the British began to occupy Spanish territories, forcing a massive exodus of well-to-do citizens from Santo Domingo, but the British were eventually expelled from Hispaniola in April , with the help of Toussaint Louverture. In the Haitian revolutionary Louverture used his forces against the Spanish, and in January he unified all of Hispaniola as one island. In January the French invaded Hispaniola, looking to quell the violence and return the colony to its status as an economic goldmine.

Louverture, however, was taken prisoner by the French in Regardless of this, on January 1, Haiti, under the leadership of Jean-Jacques Dessalines, declared its independence, and in the following year invaded the Spanish side of Hispaniola. In the once vibrant and economic powerhouse known as the Colony of Santo Domingo began its fight for what is known as the Ephemeral Independence, but this was not to last.

In the newly independent Haitians were fearful that the French would use the eastern portion of the island to mount an attack on Haiti and re-establish slavery. Under the leadership of Jean Pierre Boyer, the Haitians invaded the eastern side of Hispaniola, outlawed slavery, and once again unified the island until the fight for independence in

The withdrawal of the colonial government from the northern coastal region opened the way for French buccaneers , who had a base on Tortuga Island , off the northwest coast of present-day Haiti, to settle on Hispaniola in the mid-seventeenth century. Dominican Republic portal. In the Caribbean, as across the rest of the world, the 19 th century was the century of the successive abolitions of slavery. But race in the Dominican Republic and in other parts of the Caribbean does not mean the same thing as it does in the United States. One of the changes the Americans made was to establish and train a new army, which had previously been done in next-door Haiti.

Slavery dominican republic hispanola

Slavery dominican republic hispanola

Slavery dominican republic hispanola

Slavery dominican republic hispanola

Slavery dominican republic hispanola. Blog Archive

Caonabo struck again when his forces attacked and burned a fort built by Columbus, killing forty Spaniards. But while more than ten thousand Tainos fought against the Spanish, they succumbed to the power of the Spanish weaponry. When Guarionex attacked the Spanish again, in , both he and Caonabo were caught by the Spanish and both shipped to Spain; on the journey Caonabo died—according to legend, of rage—and Guarionex drowned.

His wife, Anacaona , moved to the Xaragua division, where her brother, Bohechio, was cacique. After Bohechio's death, she became cacique and subsequently extended refuge and assistance to runaway enslaved Tainos and Africans. One hundred thousand Tainos died from —, half of them by their own hand through self-starvation, poison, leaps from cliffs, etc. Into this land of meek outcasts there came some Spaniards who immediately behaved like ravening wild beasts, wolves, tigers or lions that had been starved for many days.

And Spaniards have behaved in no other way during the past forty years, down to the present time, for they are still acting like ravening beasts, killing, terrorizing, afflicting, torturing, and destroying the native peoples, doing all this with the strangest and most varied new methods of cruelty.

Hundreds of thousands of Tainos living on the island were enslaved to work in gold mines. As a consequence of disease, forced labor, famine, and mass killings, by , only 60, were still alive. The first enslaved blacks were purchased in Lisbon, Portugal. Some had been transported there from the West African Guinea coast, and others had been born and raised in Portugal or Spain. In , the first sizable shipment, consisting of Black Ladinos , arrived in Hispaniola from Spain.

Eight years later African-born slaves arrived in the West Indies. Many of the Africans brutally jammed into the slave ships had been the losers in Africa's endemic and endless wars. Others were kidnapped from the coast or taken from villages inland. Sugar cane was introduced to Hispaniola from the Canary Islands , and the first sugar mill in the New World was established in , on Hispaniola. The sugar mill owners soon formed a new colonial elite and convinced the Spanish king to allow them to elect the members of the Real Audiencia from their ranks.

Poorer colonists subsisted by hunting the herds of wild cattle that roamed throughout the island and selling their hides. The enslaved population numbered between twenty and thirty thousand in the mid-sixteenth century and included mine, plantation, cattle ranch, and domestic laborers. A small Spanish ruling class of about twelve hundred monopolized political and economic power, and it used ordenanzas laws and violence to control the population of color.

In , a guerrilla war between the colonizers and Taino and African forces was initiated by the Taino leader Enriquillo. Descending from the Bahoruco Mountains with his troops, Enriquillo killed Spaniards, devastated farms and property, and took Africans back with him.

The crown appointed General Francisco Barrionuevo , a veteran of many battles in Spain, as captain to lead the war against Enriquillo. Barrionuevo opted to negotiate, realizing that violence had not worked and that resources for more armed actions were scarce.

In he met Enriquillo on what is today's Cabrito Island, in the middle of Lake Jaragua now Enriquillo Lake and reached a peace agreement that granted Enriquillo and his troops freedom and land. The first known armed rebellion of enslaved Africans occurred in According to official records, they stopped next at the Ocoa plantation, with the intention of killing more whites and recruiting more enslaved blacks and Indians, then moved on to Azua.

After being informed of the insurrection, Columbus recruited a small army, which, mounted on horseback and shouting their battle cry " Santiago ", headed south in pursuit. Columbus's army confronted the rebels at the Nizao, the Spanish shooting at them with guns and the rebels responding by throwing stones and logs. Five days later the Spanish attacked again. They caught several rebels, whom they executed by lynching along the colonial road, but many more had escaped to face later attacks, in which more were killed or apprehended.

By the mid-sixteenth century, there were an estimated seven thousand maroons runaway slaves beyond Spanish control on Hispaniola. The Bahoruco Mountains were their main area of concentration, although Africans had escaped to other areas of the island as well.

From their refuges, they descended to attack the Spanish. In the slave Diego de Guzman led an insurrection that swept through the San Juan de la Maguana area, after which he escaped to the Bahoruco Mountains. After his capture, de Guzman was savagely killed and some of his fellow rebels were burned alive, others burned with branding irons, others hung, and others had their feet cut off.

For fifteen years Lemba attacked Spanish towns, plantations, and farms with an army of four hundred Africans. Lemba was eventually caught and was executed in Insurrections continued to burden the colony's tranquility and economy.

From to the end of the sixteenth century, maroons attacked farms, plantations, and villages. By the colony was unable to recruit and pay troops to pursue the rebels. Beginning in the s, the Caribbean Sea was raided by increasingly numerous French pirates. In Spain authorized the construction of Santo Domingo's fortified wall, and in decided to restrict sea travel to enormous, well-armed convoys. In another move, which would destroy Hispaniola 's sugar industry, in Havana , more strategically located in relation to the Gulf Stream , was selected as the designated stopping point for the merchant flotas , which had a royal monopoly on commerce with the Americas.

In the s English pirates joined the French in regularly raiding Spanish shipping in the Americas. With the conquest of the American mainland, Hispaniola quickly declined.

Most Spanish colonists left for the silver-mines of Mexico and Peru , while new immigrants from Spain bypassed the island. Except for the city of Santo Domingo, which managed to maintain some legal exports, Dominican ports were forced to rely on contraband trade, which, along with livestock, became the sole source of livelihood for the island dwellers.

A third of the city lay in ruins and almost all of its civic, military and religious buildings had been either damaged or destroyed. During his occupation of Santo Domingo, Drake sent a black boy with a message to the governor. A Hidalgo who was standing by considered this an insult and ran the boy through with his sword.

He told the governor that he would hang two more friars every day until the murderer had been executed. The murderer was hanged by his own countrymen.

In , Christopher Newport attacked the town of Azua on the bay of Ocoa, which was taken and plundered. The Dutch responded by sourcing new salt supplies from Spanish America where colonists were more than happy to trade. In , Spain was infuriated that Spanish settlements on the northern and western coasts of the island were carrying out large scale and illegal trade with the Dutch, who were at that time fighting a war of independence against Spain in Europe, and the English, a very recent enemy state, and so decided to forcibly resettle their inhabitants closer to the city of Santo Domingo.

The settlements of La Yaguana, and Bayaja, on the west and north coasts respectively of modern-day Haiti were burned, as were the settlements of Monte Cristi and Puerto Plata on the north coast and San Juan de la Maguana in the southwestern area of the modern-day Dominican Republic.

The withdrawal of the colonial government from the northern coastal region opened the way for French buccaneers , who had a base on Tortuga Island , off the northwest coast of present-day Haiti, to settle on Hispaniola in the mid-seventeenth century.

Although the Spanish destroyed the buccaneers' settlements several times, the determined French would not be deterred or expelled. Intermittent warfare went on between French and Spanish settlers over the next three decades; however, Spain, hard-pressed by warfare in Europe, could not maintain a garrison in Santo Domingo sufficient to secure the entire island against encroachment. In , under the Treaty of Ryswick , Spain ceded the western third of the island to France.

A Spanish defending force of perhaps — men, mostly militia, repulsed a landing force of 9, men. Madrid sought to contest such encroachments by using Santo Domingo as an advance military base, but Spanish power was by now too depleted to expel the rival colonies.

The city itself was furthermore subjected to a smallpox epidemic, cacao blight, and hurricane in ; another storm two years later; a second epidemic in ; a third hurricane in September ; plus an earthquake in May that killed two dozen residents. During this seventeenth "century of misery", the Spanish on Hispaniola continued to persecute maroons living peacefully in the island's interior mountains and valleys.

With little to show for it, this policy of armed harassment added more public expense to a weak colonial economy, and the financial recovery of the Spanish colony in the eighteenth century led to increased slave insurrections and marronage. The House of Bourbon replaced the House of Habsburg in Spain in and introduced economic reforms that gradually began to revive trade in Santo Domingo.

The crown progressively relaxed the rigid controls and restrictions on commerce between Spain and the colonies and among the colonies. The last flotas sailed in ; the monopoly port system was abolished shortly thereafter. By the middle of the century, the population was bolstered by emigration from the Canary Islands , resettling the northern part of the colony and planting tobacco in the Cibao Valley , and importation of slaves was renewed. The population of Santo Domingo grew from about 6, in to approximately , in Of this number, about 40, were white landowners, about 25, were mulatto freedmen, and some 60, were slaves.

However, it remained poor and neglected, particularly in contrast with its western, French neighbor Saint-Domingue , which became the wealthiest colony in the New World and had half a million inhabitants. In our veins runs the blood of the heroic conquistadores who won this island of ours with sword and blood. When the War of Jenkins' Ear between Spain and Britain broke out in , Spanish privateers, particularly from Santo Domingo, began to troll the Caribbean Sea, a development that lasted until the end of the eighteenth century.

During this period, Spanish privateers from Santo Domingo sailed into enemy ports looking for ships to plunder, thus harming commerce with Britain and New York. As a result, the Spanish obtained stolen merchandise—foodstuffs, ships, enslaved persons—that were sold in Hispaniola's ports, with profits accruing to individual sea raiders. These practices of human traffic and terror facilitated capital accumulation.

The revenue acquired in these acts of piracy was invested in the economic expansion of the colony and led to repopulation from Europe. As restrictions on colonial trade were relaxed, the colonial elites of St. Domingue offered the principal market for Santo Domingo's exports of beef, hides, mahogany, and tobacco. With the outbreak of the Haitian Revolution in , the rich urban families linked to the colonial bureaucracy fled the island, while most of the rural hateros cattle ranchers remained, even though they lost their principal market.

Although the population of Spanish Santo Domingo was perhaps one-fourth that of French Saint-Domingue, this did not prevent the Spanish king from launching an invasion of the French side of the island in , attempting to take advantage of the chaos sparked by the French Revolution.

Although the Spanish military effort went well on Hispaniola, it did not so in Europe. The Spanish colony was ceded first to France in as part of the Treaty of Basel between the defeated Spanish and the French, then it was invaded by the British in The devastated Spanish-speaking colony was then occupied by the French in , in spite of the dramatic defeat of Napoleon's forces at the hands of the former French slaves who proclaimed the independent Republic of Haiti in Santo Domingo was invaded again by Haitians in and then yet again by the British in The population of the new Spanish colony stood at approximately , Of this number, about 30, were slaves, and the rest a mixture of white, Indian, and black.

The European Spaniards were few, and consisted principally of Catalans. Seda and Henriquez were apprehended and executed; Leocadio was captured within days, hanged, dismembered, and boiled in oil. Spain's hold over Santo Domingo remained precarious. Dominican leaders—recognizing their vulnerability both to Spanish and to Haitian attack and also seeking to maintain their slaves as property—attempted to annex themselves to Gran Colombia.

The twenty-two-year Haitian occupation that followed is recalled by Dominicans as a period of brutal military rule, though the reality is more complex. It led to large-scale land expropriations and failed efforts to force production of export crops, impose military services, restrict the use of the Spanish language, and eliminate traditional customs such as cockfighting.

It reinforced Dominicans' perceptions of themselves as different from Haitians in "language, race, religion and domestic customs". Haiti's constitution forbade whites from owning land, and the major landowning families were forcibly deprived of their properties.

Most emigrated to the Spanish colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico , or to independent Gran Colombia, usually with the encouragement of Haitian officials, who acquired their lands. The Haitians, who associated the Catholic Church with the French slave-masters who had exploited them before independence, confiscated all church property, deported all foreign clergy, and severed the ties of the remaining clergy to the Vatican.

Santo Domingo's university , the oldest in the Western Hemisphere, lacking students, teachers, and resources, closed down. In order to receive diplomatic recognition from France , Haiti was forced to pay an indemnity of million francs to the former French colonists, which was subsequently lowered to 60 million francs, and Haiti imposed heavy taxes on the eastern part of the island.

Since Haiti was unable to adequately provision its army, the occupying forces largely survived by commandeering or confiscating food and supplies at gunpoint. Attempts to redistribute land conflicted with the system of communal land tenure terrenos comuneros , which had arisen with the ranching economy, and newly emancipated slaves resented being forced to grow cash crops under Boyer's Code Rural.

It was in the city of Santo Domingo that the effects of the occupation were most acutely felt, and it was there that the movement for independence originated.

In they allied with a Haitian movement in overthrowing Boyer. The Dominican Republic's first constitution was adopted on November 6, The state was commonly known as Santo Domingo in English until the early 20th century. These privileges not only served him to win the war but also allowed him to persecute, execute and drive into exile his political opponents, among which Duarte was the most important.

In Haiti after the fall of Boyer, black leaders had ascended to the power once enjoyed exclusively by the mulatto elite. Dominican forces suffered no casualties in the battle, [26] while the Haitians sustained over casualties. Over Haitians were killed while the Dominicans suffered no casualties. Three Dominican schooners under the command of Juan Bautista Cambiaso intercepted a Haitian brigantine and two schooners which were bombarding shore targets. In the ensuing engagement, all three Haitian vessels were sunk, ensuring Dominican naval superiority for the rest of the war.

The Dominicans suffered no deaths during the battle and only three wounded. Santana used the ever-present threat of Haitian invasion as a justification for consolidating dictatorial powers. For the Dominican elite—mostly landowners, merchants and priests—the threat of re-annexation by more populous Haiti was sufficient to seek protection from a foreign power. The constant threat and fear of renewed Haitian intervention required all men of fighting age to take up arms in defense against the Haitian military.

Theoretically, fighting age was generally defined as between fifteen and eighteen years of age to forty or fifty years. Despite wide, popular glorification of military service, many in the ranks of the Liberation Army were mutinous and desertion rates were high despite penalties as severe as death for shirking the obligation of military service.

Without adequate roads, the regions of the Dominican Republic developed in isolation from one another. In the south, the economy was dominated by cattle-ranching particularly in the southeastern savannah and cutting mahogany and other hardwoods for export.

This region retained a semi-feudal character, with little commercial agriculture, the hacienda as the dominant social unit, and the majority of the population living at a subsistence level. In the Cibao Valley , the nation's richest farmland, peasants supplemented their subsistence crops by growing tobacco for export, mainly to Germany. Tobacco required less land than cattle ranching and was mainly grown by smallholders, who relied on itinerant traders to transport their crops to Puerto Plata and Monte Cristi.

Santana antagonized the Cibao farmers, enriching himself and his supporters at their expense by resorting to multiple peso printings that allowed him to buy their crops for a fraction of their value.

In , he was forced to resign and was succeeded by his vice-president, Manuel Jimenes. After returning to lead Dominican forces against a new Haitian invasion in , Santana marched on Santo Domingo, deposing Jimenes.

His seamen under the French adventurer, Fagalde, raided the Haitian coasts, plundered seaside villages, as far as Cape Dame Marie, and butchered crews of captured enemy ships. The Cibanian tobacco planters, who were ruined when inflation ensued, revolted, recalling Santana from exile to lead their rebellion.

After a year of civil war, Santana seized Santo Domingo and installed himself as president. In , a group of Americans tried unsuccessfully to take over the small Dominican island of Alto Velo off the southwestern border coast of Hispaniola. Pedro Santana inherited a bankrupt government on the brink of collapse. Having failed in his initial bids to secure annexation by the U. Santana initially was named Capitan-General of the new Spanish province, but it soon became obvious that Spanish authorities planned to deprive him of his power, leading him to resign in On August 16, , a national war of restoration began in Santiago, where the rebels established a provisional government.

Some fought for the reserve forces alongside Spanish troops. The Spanish forces of the Cibao valley were obliged to concentrate in Fort San Luis, at Santiago, where they were besieged by the insurgents.

The rebels had possession of three forts which face the Puerto Plata road. They undertook to make a general assault on the fort where the Spanish troops were concentrated. The besieged forces let the enemy's bands come near, and when within musket range opened a tremendous fire of artillery, which, committing great destruction, drove them back in disorder. They, however, tried their luck again, and this time set fire to the houses of the town in different parts and made their attack in the midst of the conflagration.

Spanish reinforcements arrived and charged the insurgents, who received them with grapeshot and musketry from the three forts which they held. The insurgents were repulsed and the forts retaken at the point of the bayonet. The garrison of Santiago abandoned the city and marched to Puerto Plata, the main northern port, attacked by Dominicans all the way. The Spaniards reportedly lost 1, men. Eventually, Spanish sallied out and drove off the rebels, with help from the cannon of the fort, but by then the city had been plundered and burnt almost out of existence.

By mid-November, virtually the whole garrisons of Cuba and Puerto Rico were deployed on Santo Domingo and 8, troops had been sent from Europe, diverted from deployment in Morocco.

The Spanish navy had complete command of the sea and used a fleet of paddle wheel steamers to transport troops to, and around, the island. As the fighting continued, racist incidents became more acute. Spanish soldiers were openly hostile to Dominicans of color, and incidents of unprovoked violence against black Dominicans and migrants in the towns proliferated.

However, the rebels were in a state of political disarray and proved unable to present a cohesive set of demands. The rebels formalized their provisional rule by holding a national convention in February , which enacted a new constitution, but the new government exerted little authority over the various regional guerrilla caudillos , who were largely independent of one another.

Unable to extract concessions from the disorganized rebels, when the American Civil War ended, in March , Queen Isabella annulled the annexation and independence was restored, with the last Spanish troops departing by July. In both islands, Dominican veterans joined the independence fight. Within the decade, Spanish colonialism began to crumble, and rebels won emancipation.

By the time the Spanish departed, most of the main towns lay in ruins and the island was divided among several dozen caudillos.

Once the Spanish were vanquished, the numerous military and guerrilla leaders began to fight among themselves. From the Spanish withdrawal to , there were twenty-one changes of government and at least fifty military uprisings. In the course of these conflicts, two parties emerged. During these wars, the small and corrupt national army was far outnumbered by militias organized and maintained by local caudillos who set themselves up as provincial governors.

These militias were filled out by poor farmers or landless plantation workers impressed into service who usually took up banditry when not fighting in revolution. The Ten Years' War in Cuba brought Cuban sugar planters to the country in search of new lands and security from the insurrection that freed their slaves and destroyed their property.

They were later joined by Italians, Germans, Puerto Ricans and Americans in forming the nucleus of the Dominican sugar bourgeoisie, marrying into prominent families to solidify their social position. To meet their need for better transportation, over miles of private rail-lines were built by and serving the sugar plantations by Kitts and Nevis , Anguilla , and Antigua referred to by Dominicans as cocolo s.

Puerto Ricans were imported to work under near-slave conditions on Puerto Rican-owned sugar plantations in the Dominican Republic, in the area of La Romana, during the nineteenth century. Others worked in coffee fields. Arabs began to arrive in the Dominican Republic during the latter part of the nineteenth century. They were widely accused of being dirty and of having bad manners and habits, and the government was reproached for having allowed these immigrants into the nation.

Marines, but would also attack and kill Arab vendors traveling through the countryside. The son of a Haitian father and a mother from St. He served as President —, , and —, wielding power through a series of puppet presidents when not occupying the office. Incorporating both Rojos and Azules into his government, he developed an extensive network of spies and informants to crush potential opposition. His government undertook a number of major infrastructure projects, including the electrification of Santo Domingo, the beginning of telephone and telegraph service, the construction of a bridge over the Ozama River , and the completion of a single-track railroad linking Santiago and Puerto Plata, financed by the Amsterdam -based Westendorp Co.

However, sugar prices underwent a steep decline in the last two decades of the 19th century. When the Westendorp Co. The Jimenistas toppled his government, but their leader, Carlos Morales , refused to return power to Jimenes, allying with the Horacistas, and he soon faced a new revolt by his betrayed Jimenista allies.

In , American warships bombarded insurgents in Santo Domingo for insulting the United States flag and damaging an American steamer. With the nation on the brink of defaulting, France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands sent warships to Santo Domingo to press the claims of their nationals.

In order to preempt military intervention, United States president Theodore Roosevelt introduced the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, declaring that the United States would assume responsibility for ensuring that the nations of Latin America met their financial obligations. In January , under this corollary, the United States assumed administration of the Dominican Republic's customs. Under the terms of this agreement, a Receiver-General, appointed by the U.

After suppressing a rebellion in the northwest by Jimenista General Desiderio Arias , his government brought political stability and renewed economic growth, aided by new American investment in the sugar industry. However, his assassination in , for which Morales and Arias were at least indirectly responsible, once again plunged the republic into chaos. For two months, executive power was held by a civilian junta dominated by the chief of the army, General Alfredo Victoria.

In June U. President Woodrow Wilson issued an ultimatum for the two sides to end hostilities and agree on a new president, or have the United States impose one. The Dominican Congress rejected these demands and began impeachment proceedings against Jimenes. Prior to their landing, Jimenes resigned, refusing to exercise an office "regained with foreign bullets". They occupied Monte Cristi without meeting resistance, but at Puerto Plata they had to fight their way into the city under heavy but inaccurate fire from about pro-Arias irregulars.

During this landing the Marines sustained several casualties, including the death of Captain Herbert J. Hirshinger, the first Marine killed in combat in the Dominican campaign. Insurgent losses, while never accurately determined, were light. A column of Marines under Colonel Joseph H. Pendleton marched toward Santiago de los Caballeros, where rebel forces had established a government. Along the way, Dominicans tore up the railroad tracks, forcing Marines to walk. They also burned bridges, delaying the march.

At hours on June 27, Pendleton ordered his artillery to pound the ridgeline. Machine guns offered covering fire. A bayonet attack cleared the first ridge.

Rifle fire removed the rebels who were threatening from atop the second. A week later, the Marines encountered another entrenched rebel force at Guayacanas. The rebels kept up single-shot fire against the automatic weapons of the Marines before the Marines drove them off.

The battle was important in the history of the 4th Marines insofar as the regiment subsequently acquired its first Medal of Honor recipient. First Sergeant Roswell Winans , while manning his machine gun, displayed such exceptional valor that he was later awarded the nation's highest military honor. Sergeant Winans obtained his award for the bravado that he demonstrated when for a time he single-handedly raked enemy lines with his weapon.

Then, when the gun jammed, he set about clearing it in full view of the Dominicans without regard to his personal safety. With his supporters defeated, Arias surrendered on July 5 in exchange for being pardoned. Using some released prisoners, he was preparing to defend the old Spanish colonial structure, the Fortazela. On November 29 U. Marine Lt. Ernest C. Williams , whose detachment was billeted in San Francisco, charged the closing gates of the fort at nightfall with a dozen Marines.

Eight were shot down; the others, including Williams, forced their way in and seized the old structure. Another Marine detachment seized the police station. Reinforcements from nearby detachments soon suppressed the uprising. Dominican elites, animated by nationalist resentment of the takeover of their country, refused to help the foreigners restructure their government and society.

The Dominican Congress elected Dr. The American military government implemented many of the institutional reforms carried out in the United States during the Progressive Era , including reorganization of the tax system, accounting and administration, expansion of primary education, the creation of a nationwide police force to unify the country, and the construction of a national system of roads, including a highway linking Santiago to Santo Domingo.

Despite the reforms, virtually all Dominicans resented the loss of their sovereignty to foreigners, few of whom spoke Spanish or displayed much real concern for the nation's welfare, and the military government, unable to win the backing of any prominent Dominican political leaders, imposed strict censorship laws and imprisoned critics of the occupation.

In , U. In the southeast, dispossessed peasants formed armed bands, called gavilleros , waging a guerrilla war that lasted six years, with most of the fighting in Hato Mayor and El Seibo. At any given time, the Marines faced eight to twelve such bands each composed of several hundred followers.

Asthma,Allergic diseases. Enlarged prostate,Osteoporosis. He's a herbal doctor with a unique heart of God, Contact Emal.. I Want To Appreciate Dr. Sunday, October 14, Slavery in Hispaniola. Many of those slaves who made the voyage were captured from the inland portion of the African continent by other Africans or taken as prisoners of war, and the sold by them to European traders. On their journey across the vast Atlantic, these slaves were tightly packed below deck on slave ships where they were shackled to another slave who was sure to be from a different area of Africa.

It is estimated that one out of every eight slaves traveling across the Atlantic died along the way. This is the effects of the lucrative business' affects on the island of Hispaniola. These early African slaves were imported to the island to replace the waning native Taino population of workers who were quickly being wiped out by disease and over work.

Initially, while Hispaniola was under the sole control of the Spanish, slavery was not a large market. However, by the year , the Spanish had worked Hispaniola's gold mines almost dry on the Western part of the island. Because of this, many of the Spanish settlers abandoned the area in pursuit of gold and silver that had been discovered in Peru and Mexico.

The French saw the great value in the land and quickly began to establishing large sugar plantations in the land they called Saint Domingue present-day Haiti. It is estimated that by the late 19th Century, there were about , slaves living in Saint Domingue. Slavery by the Numbers The Slave Trade Database shows that between the years Saint-Domingue consistantly recieved more and 1,, new slaves in the colony per 25 years.

Haiti and the Dominican Republic: One island, two worlds | Global Ideas | DW |

It is the most populous island in the West Indies and the region's second largest after Cuba. Hispaniola is the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, founded by Christopher Columbus on his voyages in and Domingue, or San Domingo.

The colonial terms Saint-Domingue and Santo Domingo are sometimes still applied to the whole island, though these names refer, respectively, to the colonies that became Haiti and the Dominican Republic. In , the United States occupation government, led by Harry Shepard Knapp , obliged the use of the name Hispaniola on the island, and recommended the use of that name to the National Geographic Society.

It was also adopted as the official name of independent Santo Domingo, as the Republic of Spanish Haiti , a state that existed from November until its annexation by Haiti in February Christopher Columbus inadvertently arrived on the island during his first voyage across the Atlantic in , where his flagship, the Santa Maria , sank after running aground on December A contingent of men were left at an outpost christened La Navidad , on the north coast of present-day Puerto Plata.

On his return the following year, [22] Columbus quickly established a second compound farther east in present-day Dominican Republic , La Isabela after the destruction of La Navidad. European colonization of the island began in earnest the following year, when 1, men arrived from Spain under the watch of Bartolomeo Columbus.

In , the town of Nueva Isabela was founded. After being destroyed by a hurricane, it was rebuilt on the opposite side of the Ozama River and called Santo Domingo.

It is the oldest permanent European settlement in the Americas. In the colony began to import African slaves after a charter was passed in allowing the import of slaves by Ferdinand and Isabel.

The Spanish believed Africans would be more capable of performing physical labor. Precious metals played a large role in the history of the island after Columbus's arrival. One of the first inhabitants Columbus came across on this island was "a girl wearing only a gold nose plug". Traveling further east from Navidad, Columbus came across the Yaque del Norte River , which he named Rio de Oro because its "sands abound in gold dust".

On Columbus's return during his second voyage, he learned it was the cacique Caonabo who had massacred his settlement at Navidad. While Columbus established a new settlement the village of La Isabela on Jan. Columbus himself visited the mines of Cibao on 12 March Afterwards, every person over the age of fourteen had to produce a hawksbill of gold. These San Cristobal mines were later known as the Minas Viejas mines. Then, in , the first major discovery of gold was made in the cordillera central, which led to a mining boom.

By , Columbus's cousin Giovanni Colombo, had discovered gold near Buenaventura. The deposits were later known as Minas Nuevas. The gold rush of — ensued, and Ovando expropriated the gold mines of Miguel Diaz and Francisco de Garay in , as pit mines became royal mines for Ferdinand , who reserved the best mines for himself, though placers were open to private prospectors.

Furthermore, Ferdinand kept natives in the San Cristobal mining area supervised by salaried miners. By , the Spanish Crown legalized the distribution of Indians to work the mines as part of the encomienda system. Once the Indians entered the mines, they were often wiped out by hunger and difficult conditions.

The repartimiento of accelerated emigration of the Spanish colonists, coupled with the exhaustion of the mines. Christopher Columbus brought sugar cane to the island in , on his second voyage. The first sugar mill in the Caribbean was established in Hispaniola in Diego Colon's plantation had 40 African slaves in By , 19 mills were in operation from Azua to Santo Domingo. By the early 17th century, the island and its smaller neighbors notably Tortuga became regular stopping points for Caribbean pirates.

In , the government of Philip III ordered all inhabitants of Hispaniola to move close to Santo Domingo, to avoid interaction with pirates. Rather than secure the island, his action meant that French, English and Dutch pirates established their own bases on the abandoned north and west coasts of the island. The French colony was given the name Saint-Domingue. In the Treaty of Ryswick , Spain formally ceded the western third of the island to France.

Nicknamed the "Pearl of the Antilles", it became the richest and most prosperous colony in the West Indies , with a system of human slavery used to grow and harvest sugar cane during a time when sugar demand was high in Europe.

Slavery kept prices low and profit was maximized. It was an important port in the Americas for goods and products flowing to and from France and Europe. European colonists often died young due to tropical fevers, as well as from violent slave resistance in the late eighteenth century. In , during the French Revolution , a major slave revolt broke out on Saint-Domingue. When the French Republic abolished slavery in the colonies on February 4, , it was a European first [36].

The ex-slave army joined forces with France in its war against its European neighbors. In the second Treaty of Basel July 22 , Spain ceded the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, later to become the Dominican Republic. French settlers had begun to colonize some areas in the Spanish side of the territory.

Under Napoleon , France reimposed slavery in most of its Caribbean islands in and sent an army to bring Saint-Domingue under tighter control. However, thousands of the French troops succumbed to yellow fever during the summer months, and more than half of the French army died because of disease.

France continued to rule Spanish Santo Domingo. They invaded Santo Domingo and sacked the towns of Santiago de los Caballeros and Moca, killing most of their residents, but news of a French fleet sailing towards Haiti forced General Christophe to withdraw from the east, leaving it in French hands.

In , following Napoleon's invasion of Spain, the criollos of Santo Domingo revolted against French rule and, with the aid of the United Kingdom, returned Santo Domingo to Spanish control.

Fearing the influence of a society that had successfully fought and won against their masters, the United States and European powers refused to recognize Haiti, the second republic in the Western Hemisphere. France demanded a high payment for compensation to slaveholders who lost their property, and Haiti was saddled with unmanageable debt for decades.

The Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands lie to the north. Its westernmost point is known as Cap Carcasse. The island has five major ranges of mountains: The Central Range, known in the Dominican Republic as the Cordillera Central , spans the central part of the island, extending from the south coast of the Dominican Republic into northwestern Haiti, where it is known as the Massif du Nord. The lowest of the ranges is the Cordillera Oriental, in the eastern part of the country. The island has four distinct ecoregions.

There are many bird species in Hispaniola , and the island's amphibian species are also diverse. Numerous land species on the island are endangered and could become extinct. There are many species endemic to the island including insects and other invertebrates, reptiles, and mammals.

The most famous endemic mammal on the island is the Hispaniola Hutia Plagiodontia aedium. There are also many avian species on the island. More than half of the original ecoregion has been lost to habitat destruction impacting the local fauna.

In Haiti , deforestation has long been cited by scientists as a source of ecological crisis; the timber industry dates back to French colonial rule. Haiti has seen a dramatic reduction of forests due to the excessive and increasing use of charcoal as fuel for cooking.

The country has been significantly deforested over the last 50 years, resulting in the desertification of portions of the Haitian territory. In the Dominican Republic , the forest cover has increased. The success of the Dominican forest growth is due to several Dominican government policies and private organizations for the purpose, and a strong educational campaign that has resulted in increased awareness on the Dominican people of the importance of forests for their welfare and in other forms of life on the island.

Except in the Northern Hemisphere summer season, the predominant winds over Hispaniola are the northeast trade winds. In these regions, moreover, there is generally little rainfall outside hurricane season from August to October, and droughts are by no means uncommon when hurricanes do not come.

On the northern coast, in contrast, rainfall may peak between December and February, though some rain falls in all months of the year. Usually, this wet season has two peaks: one around May, the other around the hurricane season. As is usual for tropical islands, variations of temperature are much less marked than rainfall variations, and depend only on altitude. Hispaniola is the most populous Caribbean island with combined population of almost 22 million inhabitants as of April The Dominican Republic is a Hispanophone nation of approximately 10 million people.

Spanish is spoken by all Dominicans as a primary language. Roman Catholicism is the official and dominant religion. Haiti is a Francophone nation of roughly 10 million people. Although French is spoken as a primary language by the educated and wealthy minority, virtually the entire population speaks Haitian Creole , one of several French-derived creole languages.

Roman Catholicism is the dominant religion, practiced by more than half the population, although in some cases in combination with Haitian Vodou faith. See also: People of the Dominican Republic. Descendants of early Spanish settlers and of black slaves from West Africa constitute the two main racial strains.

In recent times, Dominican and Puerto Rican researchers identified in the current Dominican population the presence of genes belonging to the aborigines of the Canary Islands commonly called Guanches.

The divergence between the level of economic development between Haiti and Dominican Republic makes its border the higher contrast of all western land borders and is evident that the Dominican Republic has one of the highest migration issues in the Americas. The island also has an economic history and current day interest and involvement in precious metals. In , it was observed that the island contained a large supply of gold, of which the early Spaniards had hardly developed.

Besides gold, these minerals included silver, manganese, copper, magnetite, iron and nickel. The mined ore is processed with gold cyanidation. Pyrite and sphalerite are the main sulfide minerals found in the m thick volcanic conglomerates and agglomerates , which constitute the world's second largest sulphidation gold deposit. Copper is extracted from the sulfide ores, while gold and silver are extracted from both the sulfide and the oxide ores.

Processing is via froth flotation and cyanidation. Goethite enriched with gold and silver is found in the 30 m thick oxide cap. Below that cap is a supergene zone containing pyrite, chalcopyrite , and sphalerite. Below the supergene zone is found the unaltered massive sulphide mineralization. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Slavery dominican republic hispanola

Slavery dominican republic hispanola

Slavery dominican republic hispanola