Slavery zimbabwe-BBC World Service | The Story of Africa

Our Insights blog presents deep data-driven analysis and visual content on important global issues from the expert data team at Knoema. Leverage our AI Workflow Tools and online data environment to manipulate, visualize, present, and export data. The countries with the highest numbers of enslaved people are India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Uzbekistan. Whatever term is used, the significant characteristic of all forms of modern slavery is that it involves one person depriving another people of their freedom: their freedom to leave one job for another, their freedom to leave one workplace for another, their freedom to control their own body. The Index presents a ranking of countries based on the proportion of the population that is estimated to be in modern slavery.

Slavery zimbabwe

Ratification, succession dor accession a of the Optional Protocol Slavery zimbabwe the Convention on the Rights of the Slavery zimbabwe on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography as of 15 February The independence of Ghana in became an inspiration to other liberation movements on the continent. If child-friendly services exist in practice but there Slavery zimbabwe no evidence Slabery their existence in legislation, please rate as indicator met. Government operated or supported witness and victim protection mechanisms exist in legislation so that zimvabwe are not intimidated or interfered with INSIDE the court. The location of the first known larger settlements in Zimbabwe. As a result of the great wealth and their large standing army, the Carl fergus gay porn kingdom subjegated the kingdom of Manyika, the whole of the Dande area and the coastal kingdoms of Kiteve and Zimbabe [xlviii].

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Retrieved 3 October Retrieved 27 November By earlyit was reported that many residents in Matabeleland Nurse licensen starving as a result of the military's interruption of food supplies to the area. Dalubuhle Vundla. Russian investors wary of Zimbabwean roulette. Retrieved 19 March Growing African nationalism and general dissent, particularly in Nyasaland, persuaded Britain to dissolve the Union informing three separate divisions. Football also known as soccer is the most popular sport in Zimbabwe. Slavery zimbabwe 30 May Milestone 3 Coordination occurs at Slavery zimbabwe national and regional level, and governments are held to account for their response. Researcher Notes Indicator not met — Not Ratified.

By Patience Rusare-Murava SLAVERY — the ownership and control of one human being by another, characterised by subjugating an individual to the point of total obedience — is one of the grimmest phenomena in human history, and sadly remains in existence in various forms across the globe to this day.

  • Alongside country level data on modern slavery, the Global Slavery Index includes studies on specific countries.
  • Republic of Zimbabwe.
  • An independent assessment of government progress towards achieving UN Sustainable Development Goal 8.
  • This is just but one of the many labour cases that the Mugabes are facing since the former strong man was toppled from power in November
  • Evidence of Stone Age cultures dating back , years has been found, and it is thought that the San people, now living mostly in the Kalahari Desert, are the descendants of Zimbabwe's original inhabitants.
  • The capital and largest city is Harare and the second largest being Bulawayo.

Evidence of Stone Age cultures dating back , years has been found, and it is thought that the San people, now living mostly in the Kalahari Desert, are the descendants of Zimbabwe's original inhabitants. The remains of ironworking cultures that date back to AD have been discovered. Little is known of the early ironworkers, but it is believed that they were farmers, herdsmen, and hunters who lived in small groups.

They put pressure on the San by gradually taking over the land. With the arrival of the Bantu-speaking Shona from the north between the 10th and 11th centuries AD , the San were driven out or killed, and the early ironworkers were incorporated into the invading groups. The Shona gradually developed gold and ivory trade with the coast, and by the midth century had established a strong empire, with its capital at the ancient city of Zimbabwe.

This empire, known as Munhumutapa, split by the end of the century, the southern part becoming the Urozwi Empire, which flourished for two centuries. By the time the British began arriving in the midth century, the Shona people had long been subjected to slave raids. The once-powerful Urozwi Empire had been destroyed in the s by the Ndebele, who, under Mzilikaze, had fled from the Zulus in South Africa. David Livingstone, a Scottish missionary and explorer, was chiefly responsible for opening the whole region to European penetration.

His explorations in the s focused public attention on Central Africa, and his reports on the slave trade stimulated missionary activity. In , after visiting Mzilikaze, Robert Moffat, Livingstone's father-in-law, established Inyati Mission, the first permanent European settlement in what is now Zimbabwe.

To forestall Portuguese and Boer expansion, both the British government and Cecil Rhodes actively sought to acquire territory. Rhodes, whose fortune had been made through diamond mining in South Africa, became especially active in gaining mineral rights and in sending settlers into Matabeleland the area occupied by the Ndebele people and Mashonaland the area occupied by the Shona people.

In , Lobengula, king of the Ndebele, accepted a treaty with Great Britain and granted to Charles Rudd, one of Rhodes's agents, exclusive mineral rights to the lands he controlled.

Rhodes gained the right to dispose of land to settlers a right he was already exercising de facto. With the defeat of the Ndebele and the Shona between and , Europeans were guaranteed unimpeded settlement.

The name Rhodesia was common usage by Under BSAC administration, British settlement continued, but conflicts arose between the settlers and the company. In , Southern Rhodesia was annexed to the crown; its African inhabitants thereby became British subjects, and the colony received its basic constitution.

After the onset of self-government, the major issue in Southern Rhodesia was the relationship between the European settlers and the African population. The British government, besides controlling the colony's foreign affairs, retained certain powers to safeguard the rights of Africans. In , however, Southern Rhodesia adopted a land apportionment act that was accepted by the British government. Under this measure, about half the total land area, including all the mining and industrial regions and all the areas served by railroads or roads, was reserved for Europeans.

Most of the rest was designated as Tribal Trust Land, native purchase land, or unassigned land. Later acts firmly entrenched the policy of dividing land on a racial basis. In , the Central African Federation was formed, consisting of the three British territories of Northern Rhodesia now Zambia , Nyasaland now Malawi , and Southern Rhodesia, with each territory retaining its original constitutional status.

In , in spite of the opposition of the federal prime minister, Sir Roy Welensky, Nyasaland and Northern Rhodesia withdrew from the federation with British approval. The federation disbanded in Southern Rhodesia, although legally still a colony, sought an independent course under the name of Rhodesia. Political agitation in Rhodesia increased after the UK's granting of independence to Malawi and Zambia.

The white-settler government demanded formalization of independence, which it claimed had been in effect since The African nationalists also demanded independence, but under conditions of universal franchise and African majority rule.

The British government refused to yield to settler demands without amendments to the colony's constitution, including a graduated extension of the franchise leading to eventual African rule.

Negotiations repeatedly broke down, and on 5 November , Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith declared a state of emergency. On 11 November, the Smith government issued a unilateral declaration of independence since known as UDI.

The British government viewed UDI as illegal and imposed limited economic sanctions, but these measures did not bring about the desired results. Further attempts at a negotiated settlement ended in failure. The Legislative Council passed the constitution bill in November, and Rhodesia declared itself a republic on 2 March The UK called the declaration illegal, and 11 countries closed their consulates in Rhodesia.

The UN Security Council called on member states not to recognize any acts by the illegal regime and condemned Portugal and South Africa for maintaining relations with Rhodesia. Problems in Rhodesia deepened after UDI, largely as a result of regional and international political pressure, African nationalist demands, and African guerrilla activities. Nevertheless, guerrilla activity continued.

A meeting took place in Geneva in October between the British and Smith governments and four African nationalist groups. Nkomo and Mugabe had previously formed an alliance, the Patriotic Front. The conference was unable to find the basis for a national settlement; but on 3 March , the Smith regime signed an internal agreement with Muzorewa, Sithole, and other leaders, providing for qualified majority rule and universal suffrage. Although Bishop Muzorewa, whose party won a majority in the elections of April , became the first black prime minister of the country now renamed Zimbabwe-Rhodesia , the Patriotic Front continued fighting.

Meanwhile, the British government had begun new consultations on the conflict, and at the Commonwealth of Nations Conference in Lusaka, Zambia, in August , committed itself to seeking a settlement. Negotiations that began at Lancaster House, in England, on 10 September resulted in an agreement, by 21 December, on a new, democratic constitution, democratic elections, and independence.

On 10 December, the Zimbabwe-Rhodesian parliament had dissolved itself, and the country reverted to formal colonial status during the transition period before independence. That month, sanctions were lifted and a cease-fire declared. Following elections held in February, Robert Mugabe became the first prime minister and formed a coalition government that included Joshua Nkomo.

The independent nation of Zimbabwe was proclaimed on 18 April , and the new parliament opened on 14 May Following independence, Zimbabwe initially made significant economic and social progress, but internal dissent became increasingly evident. A major point of contention was Mugabe's intention to make Zimbabwe a one-party state. Mugabe ousted Nkomo from the cabinet in February after the discovery of arms caches that were alleged to be part of a ZAPU-led coup attempt.

On 8 March , Nkomo went into exile, but returned to Parliament in August. Meanwhile, internal security worsened, especially in Matabeleland, where Nkomo supporters resorted to terrorism. The government responded by jailing suspected dissidents, using emergency powers dating from the period of white rule, and by military campaigns against the terrorists. The government's Fifth Brigade, trained by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and loyal to Mugabe, was accused of numerous atrocities against civilians in Matabeleland during By early , it was reported that many residents in Matabeleland were starving as a result of the military's interruption of food supplies to the area.

Armed dissidents continued to operate in Matabeleland until , and food supplies in the area continued to be inadequate. A round of particularly brutal killings—men, women, and children—occurred late in the year. A growing problem, however, was the political instability of Zimbabwe's neighbors to the south and east. In , South African forces raided the premises of the South African black-liberation African National Congress in Harare, and 10, Zimbabwean troops were deployed in Mozambique, seeking to keep antigovernment forces in that country from severing Zimbabwe's rail, road, and oil-pipeline links with the port of Beira in Mozambique.

Despite its reputed commitment to socialism, the Mugabe government was slow to dismantle the socioeconomic structures of the old Rhodesia.

Until , the government's hands were tied by the Lancaster House accords. Private property, most particularly large white-owned estates, could not be confiscated without fair market compensation. Nevertheless, economic progress was solid and Zimbabwe seemed to have come to terms with its settler minority. There was only modest resettlement of the landless 52, out of , landless families from to and when white farmers were bought out, black politicians often benefited.

Some 4, white farmers owned more than one-third of the best land. In March , a controversial Land Acquisition Act was passed calling for the government to purchase half of the mostly white-owned commercial farming land at below-market prices, without the right of appeal, in order to redistribute land to black peasants. However, the government continued to move slowly and not until April was it announced that 70 farms, totaling , acres, would be purchased.

ESAP pressed for a market-driven economy, reduction of the civil service, and an end to price controls and commodity subsidies. Meanwhile, in the March elections, Mugabe was reelected with There was a sharp drop in voter participation, and the election was marred by restrictions on opposition activity and open intimidation of opposition voters.

At first, Mugabe insisted that the results were a mandate to establish a one-party state. Sensing an erosion of political support, Mugabe restricted human and political rights, weakened the Bill of Rights, placed checks on the judiciary, and tampered with voters' rolls and opposition party financing.

The government also suspended the investigation into the —87 Matabeleland Crisis, a decision that prompted a November reprimand by the OAU's Human Rights Commission. As the economy sputtered, political opposition grew. In January , Sithole returned from seven years of self-imposed exile in the United States.

In July, Ian Smith chaired a meeting of Rhodesian-era parties seeking to form a coalition in opposition to Mugabe. Students, church leaders, trade unionists, and the media began to speak out. In May a new pressure group, the Forum for Democratic Reform, was launched in preparation for the elections.

Parliamentary and presidential elections in and though officially won by ZANU-PF, were discredited by opposition boycotts and low voter turnout. Then in , a homegrown pro-democracy coalition was launched from the constituency for constitutional reform—the National Constitutional Assembly NCA. The birth of the NCA dovetailed with the growing radicalization of the Zimbabwe Confederation of Trade Unions ZCTU and its transformation from a collective bargaining agent for organized urban industrial labor into a broad-based political opposition movement representing a wide spectrum of civil society, the Movement for Democratic Change MDC.

NCA supporters embraced the MDC as a vehicle for implementing the new constitution should the government be amenable to it. The MDC's first test came in February at a national referendum for constitutional changes strongly pro-regime. On February, voters soundly rejected the proposals much to the chagrin of the ruling party.

Again threatened, Mugabe crackdowned on the opposition. In the run-up to and aftermath of the elections, 34 people were killed including Tsvangirai's driver and a poll worker who were killed in a gasoline-bomb attack. The credibility the regime was further damaged in the March presidential polls, the conduct of which was declared fraudulent by the opposition and—with the exception of the AU and SADC—by the international community. Officially, Mugabe garnered By some reports, 31 people were killed in January and February and tortured.

The opposition mounted a legal challenge to the results while the Commonwealth suspended Zimbabwe for one year. By mid, the country faced multiple crises.

Owing to negative impacts of land grabbing, squatting, and repossessions of large white farms under the government's fast-track land reform program, some , jobs had been lost in commercial agriculture. Strikes and stay-aways crippled production, prompting ever more severe repression by the government.

Retrieved 1 June In addition to those considered socially undesirable, the sale of children was also common in times of famine. Baden-Powell and Burnham discussed the concept of a broad training programme in woodcraft for young men, rich in exploration, tracking , fieldcraft , and self-reliance. Some employers did not pay wages to child domestic workers, claiming they were assisting a child from a rural home by providing room and board. His resignation came months before the country's constitutional referendum and elections. London: University College London Press. MUST refer to more than one report of complicity within the reporting period AND no steps have been taken to investigate these reports.

Slavery zimbabwe

Slavery zimbabwe

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Forced labor, including by children, occurred, although the extent of the problem was unknown. Adults and children were subjected to forced labor in agriculture and domestic service in rural areas, as well as domestic servitude in cities and towns see section 7.

Forced labor by children occurred in the agricultural, artisanal gold and chrome mining, and domestic sectors. Children also were used in the commission of illegal activities, including gambling and drug smuggling. Some employers did not pay wages to child domestic workers, claiming they were assisting a child from a rural home by providing room and board. Still other children in Hopley Farms sold sex for as little as fifty cents a client to cover the cost of food.

Zimbabwean children are trafficked to South Africa, Mozambique, and Zambia, where they become victims of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor in domestic work.

Zimbabwean children, especially orphans, are sometimes lured by relatives with the promise of education or adoption, but instead are recruited to work within the country as domestic workers or forced to work in mining, drug smuggling, or other illegal activities.

Veritas, The Zimbabwean, Sept. The feminisation of poverty and the feminisation of migration mean that women from poorer and developing countries are particularly vulnerable and the proportion of women trafficked is higher in these countries. Human trafficking is modern day slavery. Its victims are men, women and children in search of better prospects in life. Lured with promises of better jobs or education, they often end up in prostitution or forced labour.

Public awareness seems sparse. The media does not seem to view it as a serious threat in Zimbabwe , hence it has received very little coverage. Combat Human Trafficking. The Herald, Harare , 10 April Markets for body parts in the southern Africa region seem to be on the upsurge as reports indicate that numbers of missing girl children and women are shooting up, particularly in neighbouring countries. The human parts found in the plastic bag in Bindura are suspected breasts and private parts of a woman probably trafficked under the pretext of job promises.

Human body parts are believed to enhance profits in business and the belief seems to be widespread in this region. Zimbabwe - A centre for Human Trafficking. The Zimbabwean government has rejected assertions by the International Organization for Migration IOM that human trafficking is a growing phenomenon in the southern African country, despite the existence of enormous evidence on the ground. The U. The White House said Zimbabwe made no progress during a day grace period given a number of countries listed in June as deficient by the State Department.

Hunger forces Zim girls into forced marriages. ZimOnline , Mutare , Zimbabwe , May 17 Faced with starvation after six years of poor harvests, Zimbabweans are resorting to centuries-old traditions of "forced marriages", known in the local Shona language as " kuzvarira ", for survival.

Nip Human Trafficking in the Bud. Reports of organised human trafficking and smuggling gangs in Zimbabwe are disturbing and call for swift action to nip it in the bud before the problem gets deeply rooted. Scores of foreigners, mostly Asians of Pakistan origin have been smuggled into the country, where they perceive huge opportunities to engage in illicit activities. Immigration officials and the police have managed to bust trafficking rings involving nationals from Pakistan , Rwanda , Burundi and Somalia.

But for the majority of the victims of human trafficking, promises of wealth and better life often turn out to be modern-day slavery. Young men and women are lured by agents who cash in on the dreams of the poor to make it big in developed countries or African countries with opportunities like Zimbabwe , South Africa and Botswana. In Europe, the majority of the victims are women, who come from eastern European countries such as Albania , Kosovo , Serbia , and Lithuania.

However, increasing numbers are also coming from Africa, Zimbabwe included. Click [ here ] to access the article. Its URL is not displayed because of its length. Earning a Life: Working Children in Zimbabwe. The important question we need to address is not the fact that children work, but rather the conditions under which they work.

Stopping children from working for their livelihood is likely to do them more harm than good. We need to prevent not the work of children, but the abuse of working children. Zimbabwe is considered a source and transit country for a small number of children trafficked for forced labor and sexual exploitation.

Within Zimbabwe , a small number of children are reportedly trafficked internally to southern border towns for commercial sexual exploitation. Arranged marriage of young girls also continued. The legal age for a civil marriage is 16 for girls and 18 for boys. Customary marriage, recognized under the Customary Marriages Act, does not provide for a minimum marriage age for either boys or girls; however, the SOA prohibits sexual relations with anyone younger than 16 years of age.

Musasa Project reported an increase in instances where families pledged girls in marriage and even unborn babies in exchange for economic protection. Such girls often "married" well before the age of There was little information on the extent of trafficking beyond anecdotal reports of girls exchanging sex for passage across the South African border, women lured to other countries with false job promises, immigration officials of neighboring countries sexually abusing children during deportation, children working as domestic or agricultural workers, and employers requiring sex from undocumented Zimbabwean workers in South Africa under threat of deportation.

There also were anecdotal reports that victims were trafficked to border areas and into Botswana and South Africa. If free legal services exist in legislation AND there is no evidence they are not being used, please rate as indicator met. If free legal services exist in practice, but there is no evidence of their existence in legislation, please rate as indicator met. If free legal services are NOT in legislation and no evidence of these being used, please rate as indicator not met.

If free legal services exist in legislation and there is evidence they are not used or are poorly implemented, please rate as indicator not met. Researcher Notes Indicator not met — no evidence that free legal services are provided for by the government. Government operated or supported witness and victim protection mechanisms exist in legislation so that victims are not intimidated or interfered with INSIDE the court.

Government operated or supported is defined as government run or funded by government or provided with in-kind support from the government. NOT applicable outside the court room see Milestone 2, indicator 2.

Victim protection mechanisms inside the courtroom refers to provision of video testimony, victims are not cross-examined, and victims are protected from perpetrators. If witness protection mechanisms exist in legislation AND there is no evidence they are not being used, please rate as indicator met. If witness protection mechanisms exist in practice, but there is no evidence of their existence in legislation, please rate as indicator met.

If witness protection mechanisms are NOT in legislation and there is no evidence of these being used, please rate as indicator not met. If witness protection mechanisms exist in legislation and there is evidence they are not used or are poorly implemented, please rate as indicator not met. Researcher Notes Indicator met — witnesses have option of protection inside the court under the Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act. Government operated or supported witness and victim protection mechanisms exist in legislation so that victims are not intimidated or interfered with OUTSIDE the court.

NOT applicable inside the court room see Milestone 2, indicator 2. If witness protection mechanisms exist in practice but there is no evidence of their existence in legislation, please rate as indicator met. If witness protection mechanisms are NOT in legislation and no evidence of these being used, please rate as indicator not met. The legal framework allows victims of modern slavery to receive compensation for damages incurred as a result of exploitation OR the legal framework allows victims of modern slavery to receive restitution for damages incurred as a result of exploitation.

Researcher Notes Indicator met — the legal framework provides for compensation. Legislation specifies that children require special services during the court case and NOT there is any evidence of child friendly services being used in court.

Child friendly services include the use of screens or video testimonies, training of judges in child friendly questioning, and the use of one support person or guardian during the court process. If child friendly services exist in legislation AND there is no evidence they are not being used, please rate as indicator met. If child friendly services exist in practice but there is no evidence of their existence in legislation, please rate as indicator met.

If child friendly services are NOT in legislation and there is no evidence of these being used, please rate as indicator not met. If child friendly services exist in legislation and there is evidence they are not used or are poorly implemented, please rate as indicator not met. Has to be a specialised law enforcement unit or a sub-unit or team within the law enforcement structure that has specialised mandate to conduct investigations into modern slavery, OR provide specialist support for colleagues AND this unit is operating since 30 June NOT local level anti trafficking coordination bodies.

This has been an impact on their ability to function. This lack of resources must have occurred between 1 February and 30 June Researcher Notes Indicator not met — no specialised unit.

SOPs include for example: clear standardised procedures for use across the unit, including how to liaise with front line officers, on how to conduct risk assessments, interview techniques covering witnesses, child victims, and use of interpreters , definitions and indicators of modern slavery, victim-centred approaches understanding of psychological stress and its impact on investigations , case referrals, etc.

Training for the judiciary has taken place on human trafficking and related legislation, victim needs in the court room, basic international legal standards in modern slavery cases, trends in modern slavery in the country, and victim profiles AND training for judiciary has occurred once since 30 June Definition of training includes formal in-person training or an online training program as part of broader curriculum on human rights or other training programs.

NOT booklets with description of modern slavery laws have been handed out to judiciary. Researcher Notes Indicator not met — no evidence of judiciary training. Training for prosecutors has taken place on human trafficking and related legislation, victim needs in the court room, basic international legal standards in modern slavery cases, trends in modern slavery in the country, and victim profiles AND training for prosecutors has occurred once since 30 June NOT booklets with description of modern slavery laws have been handed out to prosecutors.

Researcher Notes Indicator not met — training has not been provided to prosecutors. Researcher Notes Indicator not met — no evidence available. Judicial punishments are either too lenient or too harsh for offenders AND this has occurred during the period 1 February to 30 June Examples of too lenient include giving of fines, suspended sentences, and sentences that are less than the prescribed minimum.

Examples of too harsh are corporal punishment and capital punishment. Researcher Notes Indicator met — evidence of lenient punishments. Milestone 3 Coordination occurs at the national and regional level, and governments are held to account for their response. National coordination body on modern slavery trafficking, slavery, forced labour, children in armed conflict exists that includes both NGOs and government representatives AND this group met at least once between 1 February and 30 June This body coordinates the whole of the government response to modern slavery.

NOT a group or body that refers victims — this is covered under Milestone 1, 4. Any National Action Plan NAP on modern slavery, or that covers any component of modern slavery, such as trafficking, forced marriage, forced marriage, children in armed conflict AND this NAP covers part or all of the period 1 February to 30 June NOT the activities are costed, but it is unclear where this money is coming from OR there are reports of significant gaps in funding that are not plugged by IOs, NGOs or other agencies.

An independent entity is established to monitor the activities of the government in relation to its anti-modern slavery efforts. This body can be outside the NAP and does not have to focus solely on modern slavery.

Independent entity can be an independent statutory body or individual or other third party that DOES NOT implement the government response to modern slavery. The government is part of a regional response. A relevant regional body includes: — A body with more than two country representatives as members of the group, and — A focus on some form of modern slavery. The government must have signed onto, or have agreed to abide by, the shared values and objectives developed by the group i.

NOT labour migration agreements covered under M3 3. NOT evidence of repatriation covered under M3 3. Researcher Notes Indicator not met- although there is evidence of informal collaboration, no evidence of formal agreements found.

The government cooperates with home country for voluntary repatriation of foreign nationals. NOT evidence of deportation. Repatriation refers to the voluntary return of individuals to their home country with their consent. Deportation refers to the removal of individuals from a country without their consent.

Researcher Notes Indicator met — the government coordinated with Kuwait and Sudan to repatriate victims. Foreign victims are detained in detention facilities or deported for immigration violations. Can include instances where victims are detained for a breach of visa conditions OR instances where foreign victims are deported to countries of origin without access to assistance. This occurred between 1 February and 30 June Note: if victims are arrested for crimes committed while enslaved, please refer to Milestone 2, 1.

Researcher Notes Indicator not met — no evidence available during time period. For countries that are part of the EU, membership is not sufficient to offer protection. Instead, please see whether national legislation has been harmonised with EU requirements under EU law. Researcher Notes Indicator met- agreement with South Africa and Zimbabwe includes protection for migrant workers.

Milestone 4 Risk factors, such as attitudes, social systems, and institutions that enable modern slavery are addressed. Government funds or has been actively involved in research on any type of modern slavery, including responses to modern slavery, and the attitudes, social systems and institutions that place people at risk of modern slavery AND this has occurred at least once since 30 June Active involvement is defined as development of the research, participation in the research, or monetary or in-kind support.

Modern slavery includes trafficking, forced labour, slavery, worst forms of child labour, forced marriage, and use of child soldiers. NOT civil society conducts research without government involvement. NOT government conducts research on child labour. NOT government conducts prevalence research. The government funds or has been actively involved in prevalence or estimation studies of modern slavery.

AND this has occurred at least once since 30 June The research must provide estimations of the number of people in modern slavery. There is evidence that government interventions or programs are based on strategies or theories of change identified by research AND this has occurred since 30 June Evidence can include a broader government strategy that incorporates modern slavery research, the National Action Plan incorporates modern slavery research or that the National Action Plan or strategy is reviewed in line with recent modern slavery research.

Researcher Notes Indicator not met — no evidence that government interventions that aim to address modern slavery are evidence-based. Any awareness campaign implemented by the government that provides detailed information on how to avoid the risks of modern slavery AND has run at least once since 30 June These campaigns can include domestic violence, forced marriage, child marriage, the worst forms of child labour, child soldiers, and risky migration practices.

NOT an awareness-raising, counter-trafficking campaign run by an international organisation. NOT promotion of the hotline — this is covered under Milestone 1, 1. Researcher Notes Indicator met — The government has conducted awareness campaigns within the period, although no evidence is available for their continuation. The government funds labour inspections that are conducted with specific intent of finding modern slavery victims in the informal sector. Government funding is defined as monetary or in-kind support.

Informal sector includes workers in unregulated industries such as sex work, brick kilns, agriculture, fishing, and domestic work AND these inspections have occurred since 30 June NOT private companies conduct their own inspections. NOT labour inspectors are trained on modern slavery — this is covered under Milestone 1, 2.

Researcher Notes Indicator not met — labour inspections exist but no information is available on their funding or frequency. Affordable health care includes the presence of state health care schemes, community health schemes, or financial assistance focused on providing access to health care for vulnerable groups. Health care is available for all and does not discriminate based on gender, ethnicity, religious background, or geographic region. NOT health care is available for victims of modern slavery — this is covered under Milestone 1, 3.

For example, if health care is too costly, thereby excluding certain groups, or health care is too centralised, thereby excluding certain geographical regions, please rate as indicator not met. Public primary education system exists.

Education is available for all children and does not discriminate based on gender, ethnicity, religious background, or geographic region. For example, if primary education is too costly, thereby excluding attendance by certain groups of children, or education is not available to certain groups such as Roma please rate as indicator not met.

Public corruption is criminalised in legislation. Public sector includes government officials, including police, immigration, and border guards. Corruption includes, at a minimum, bribery of officials.

Please refer to legislation, not to instances of combating corruption. Individual officials include: government officials, police, immigration officials, border guards, and labour inspectors. Excludes consular staff covered by Milestone 4, indicator 1. NOT evidence of general corruption of law enforcement. MUST refer to more than one report of complicity within the reporting period AND no steps have been taken to investigate these reports.

Researcher Notes Indicator met — evidence of government complicity in modern slavery cases exists. The government funds or supports birth registration systems that cover the entire population. Can include systems which are implemented or funded by INGOs, but with government support. Government support is defined as development of the birth registration system, participation in the system, or monetary or in-kind support.

Covering the entire population refers to the percentage of people who are registered. Indicator is not met if less than 95 percent of the population is registered, OR specific groups are missing. Vulnerable populations can include ethnic, cultural, or religious groups whose members do not have equal access to birth registration. Government support is defined as development of the asylum seeker system, participation in the system, or monetary or in-kind support.

NOT asylum seekers are detained without access to services. NOT asylum seekers are deported without their claims being assessed.

NOT asylum seekers claims are assessed outside of the country where they sought asylum. Researcher Notes Indicator not met- evidence of detainment, threat of deportation and lack of protections. Government legislation or policies state that recruitment fees payable to recruitment agencies are not charged to the employee i.

Please check Labour Code or Employment Act for this information. The legal definition of an employee includes all vulnerable workers, such as domestic workers, migrant workers, construction workers, maritime workers, etc. If the jurisdiction does not have a generic definition of an employee or a labour code, the information can come from NGOs, related legislation, or reports.

NOT domestic workers are not explicitly mentioned in legislation. NOT labour protections do not cover fishermen in territorial waters.

This indicator does not extend to army, judiciary and civil service — if these are NOT included, and all other groups are included, this is still indicator met. Researcher Notes Indicator met — labour laws do apply to all. Abuse of migrant workers is institutionalised, or systematic and not addressed.

Institutionalised means that these practices are part of government policy, or that these patterns of abuse are systematic, and the government is taking little if any action to address this. Patterns of abuse includes multiple instances of the following: high recruitment fees, or high interest rates on fees making it impossible to pay them back, or withheld passports is a common occurrence by the majority of employers, or most workers have restrictions placed on their movement by their employers AND this occurred between 1 February and 30 June NOT instances of these abuses are reported, but the government is taking action against these.

Researcher Notes Indicator met — patterns of abuse of labour migrants are unchecked. Any current specific government policy or law that leads to loss of visa or deportation of migrant workers or specific groups of migrant workers, such as domestic workers for leaving abusive employers AND current defined as operating between 1 February and 30 June NOT there is evidence of victims being deported for breach of visa conditions, but this does not occur as a direct result of government policy — this is covered under Milestone 3, indicator 3.

Government provides training for its embassy or consular staff before departure for a posting or during a posting AND this has occurred once since 1 February Definition of training includes formal in-person training or part of an online training program as part of broader curriculum on human rights or other training programs. NOT booklets with indicators of trafficking have been handed out to embassy staff. Researcher Notes Indicator met — training provided to diplomatic personnel.

Any citizen found to be exploited overseas can obtain documents from their own country or be facilitated with travel back to their country by their own government.

Researcher Notes Indicator not met — evidence that government failed to act sufficiently. Any form of state-sanctioned labour, where the government forced the whole population, or segments of it, to work under threat of penalty, and for which work people have not offered themselves voluntarily. Excludes compulsory military service, work which forms part of normal civil obligations of the citizen, or work performed in cases of emergency such as war, fire, famine or flood.

Researcher Notes Indicator not met- Section 71 of the Prisons General Regulations, prohibits prisoners being employed for the private benefit of any person, except on the order of the Commissioner. Penalties of compulsory prison labour can also be sentenced for expression of views opposed to the established political, social or economic system under Sec 76 1 of the Prisons Act and Section 66 1 of the Prisons General Regulations , Sections 15, 16, 19 1 b - c and of the Public Order Security Act; Sections 31 and 33 and Sections 37 and 41 of the Criminal Law Codification and Reform Act allow fo the use of compulsory prison labour as a punishment for expression of views contrary to the established political, social or economic system.

Certain provisions of the labour Act Sections b , 2 - 3 , 1 - 2 and 1 allow for compulsory prison labour for participation in strikes. Unclear if these have ever been used in practice.

Milestone 5 Government and business stop sourcing goods and services produced by forced labour. These can be general guidelines on human rights that include sub-sections on modern slavery. Researcher Notes Indicator not met- no information found.

The government drafts and implements public procurement policies and standards that explicitly prohibit engaging businesses suspected of using forced labour or purchasing products that were made using forced labour. These policies can include inserting clauses in public contracts prohibiting the use of forced labour, directing that purchasing decisions not be made on price alone, outlining steps to be taken should a contractor be found to use forced labour, or requiring government contractors over a certain value to maintain compliance plans.

The government releases reports on activities taken to prevent use of forced labour in public procurement AND this has to have occurred since 30 June OR if the policy has been adopted since 1 February , it is enough that reporting is stipulated as part of regulating compliance. The report can be on human rights but include a sub-section on modern slavery.

The government has provided training to procurement officials on what is modern slavery, how it is relevant to their role, and on existing government policies and their implementation. This training is provided face-to-face, or through online training modules, and has occurred at least once since 30 June

Slavery on Zimbabwe’s "liberated” farms | FairPlanet

By Patience Rusare-Murava SLAVERY — the ownership and control of one human being by another, characterised by subjugating an individual to the point of total obedience — is one of the grimmest phenomena in human history, and sadly remains in existence in various forms across the globe to this day. Conveniently ignored by the modern world, the abiding image of the practice is of the slave ships, carrying Africans across the Atlantic Ocean, packed like sardines in utterly inhumane conditions, on a journey that many did not survive.

However, it is all too clear that people of the so-called Free World, who now hold themselves to be the champions and protagonists of human rights, were the chief architects of this heinous inhuman practice that tramples on all forms of human rights, and it is in their best interests to not delve into the intricacies of the Slave Trade.

For instance, if one broaches the subject of the Slave Trade in Western citadels, people suddenly become uncomfortable. Former US Ambassador to Zimbabwe Charles Ray even penned a book titled Where you come from matters less than where you are going that attempts to gloss over the injustices of the past.

Astonishingly, there are only two or three academics worldwide studying the origins of the Transatlantic Slave Trade — and much of the body of literature as well as archeological remains have only been explicated in the past four years. However, it is almost impossible to write the African story without the Transatlantic Slave Trade coming to the fore. African historians have documented the detrimental effects the Slave Trade had on the institutions and structures of African societies.

Historical evidence from case studies show how the Slave Trade caused political instability, weakened states, promoted political and social fragmentation and resulted in a deterioration of domestic legal institutions.

The parts of Africa that are the poorest today are also the areas from which the largest number of slaves were abducted in the past. Because these characteristics persist, these parts of Africa continue to be underdeveloped and poor. The tragic practice caused untold suffering to the African populace as well as the people carted across the Atlantic and, today, the Slave Trade left a trail of poverty, racism, inequality and creation of elitist wealth across four continents Europe, North America, South America and Asia — yet the practice has almost been completely ignored despite the huge impact it had.

Little wonder our children barely know the details of the Slave Trade and it has been excluded from the curriculum inherited from the colonial regime. For almost five centuries, more than 12 million black Africans a conservative figure were transported during the Transatlantic Slave Trade, according to Marcus Rediker in his book titled The Slave Ship: A Human History published in The practice was dehumanising; from the capture, treatment, squalid transportation, auctioning like stock and subjection to backbreaking work, among other condemnable acts.

Blacks were ensnared and captured like animals; many of them were bound, with their mouths padlocked. Those who reached the coastal forts were put into underground dungeons where they would stay, sometimes for as long as a year, until they were boarded on ships. To avoid this torture, some slaves opted to commit suicide by jumping into the ocean if they got a chance. Those slaves who survived capture and the journey to the coast would then face the Atlantic crossing also termed the Middle Passage , which was every bit as terrible as popular memory would have it.

People were crowded together and usually forced to lie on their backs with their heads between the legs of others. In such cramped quarters, diseases, such as smallpox and yellow fever, spread like veldfire. Some went on to commit suicide after failing to stomach the living conditions on board, and it is reported others used their fingernails to pierce their skin to induce excessive bleeding, leading to death.

Upon arrival at their destination, the slaves would be auctioned before being dispatched to their respective plantations. At the auctions, different criteria were used to put price tags on the slaves; young physically fit men fetched higher prices as well as women with many children, while older ones fetched much less. Those who made it to the plantations were overworked and a number of them starved to death.

Women slaves who were spared the backbreaking farm labour, were given an equally arduous task — breeding future slaves, looking after the products of the breeding exercise while others would tend to domestic chores. The male slaves were handpicked to sleep with female slaves to breed; these offspring were raised by neither of the parent slaves, but by domestic slaves. Slaves were denied the right to mourn their deceased or even showing empathy for a sick slave; a practice slave masters equated to weeping over a calf slaughtered by the butcher.

Because of slavery and the maltreatment of blacks, there was also the belief among the white folk that Africans had a higher pain threshold than other races. Additionally, governments and organisations worldwide have tended to favour commemorating the slave revolts and abolitionist movements which combined to end the Slave Trade rather than the more historically distant and politically less comfortable story of how it all began.

History has been unkind to individuals, such as Olaudah Equiano, who played a more quintessential role in advocating the abolishment of slavery than most of the individuals who feature in history books. The silence is more than tragic and unforgivable given that, at the time, slavery underwrote the entire Western economic system.

When the Slave Trade was eventually abolished, at different times in different countries, it was the slave owner who was given compensation and not the slave who had suffered indignity for generations. It should also be noted that what was abolished was the trade in slaves, not the practice and the laws that recognised the colour bar.

Profits accrued from the Slave Trade and slavery led to rapid investments in various industries in Europe. It is indisputable that profits from the Slave Trade financed the British Industrial Revolution and the first industrialisation of the US. The first financial institutions were also founded from the lucrative proceeds of the Slave Trade.

Barclays Bank, the Bank of England and the ill-fated Barings Bank were some of the major financial institutions established because of the wealth their founders gained from the slave and plantation trades. Even the world famous Codrington Library of the Oxford University, the epicentre of British intellectualism, benefitted from an endowment by Colonel Christopher Codrington, a colonial governor who owned slave plantations in Barbados.

Cultural places, not usually associated with slavery, such as the British Museum and Art Gallery, must thank African slaves for their rise to glory. Every important British or European family, including the Royal Family, invested in and grew wealthy from the Slave Trade.

This was true not only for Britain but for all the other major Western and northern European powers and the US. Among other things, slavery was a racist system predicated upon an alleged black inferiority and white supremacy. Those who profited from this system justified it by arguing that blacks deserved enslavement because they were inferior people. History would tell you that Liberia was founded in by former slaves from the US as a result of the end of the Transatlantic Slave Trade while Haitian independence marks the only successful slave revolt in modern history.

Western NGOs operating in Africa are no better as they represent the thinking of their governments. Though they purport to be humanitarian, they have no regard for humanity, much in the same way as the kings and caboceers during the Slave Trade era. Remember the scandal in Chad in This involved European nationals allegedly embroiled in a scheme to abduct young African children under the pretext of medical emergency. They were to take them to Europe, ostensibly to save them from the scourge of civil wars in Darfur and Chad so that the children would have a better life.

Arguably the most well-known Western intervention in Africa for so-called humanitarian reasons occurred in the 19 th Century when European Christian missionaries and their cohorts went to Africa ostensibly to help Africans recover from the ravages of the Slave Trade. Historical records show that the Christian missionaries the Catholic Church in particular often advocated the European invasion and conquest of Africa on the grounds that it would facilitate their humanitarian work.

What is of particular significance is that Christian missionaries viewed Africans, at best, as ignorant and depraved heathens while at worst, as less than human beings who could only be saved through European colonial imperialism and its various agents. King Leopold of Belgium, who after the Berlin Conference on Africa acquired the Congo, is portrayed in the literature as an outstanding European philanthropist who was engaged in a mission of civilising Africans.

In the portrayal, it is scarcely mentioned that he presided over the genocide of about 12 million Africans in the s. The history of the Slave Trade should not be sanitised. We owe it to history to document the practices that obtained during the Slave Trade. It is a travesty that the German Holocaust has more documented history than the Slave Trade, yet the latter recorded far more figures than what we are made to believe.

Celebrating Being Zimbabwean. Share on Facebook. Share this on WhatsApp. Regime change and labour unions in Zim. US and allies kill developing economies. Haiti resistance and slaves emancipation. Please enter your comment! Please enter your name here. You have entered an incorrect email address! African women and the significance of a head-wrap Dhuku March 12, Khami Monument …the hidden treasure March 9, Pre-colonial Great Zimbabwe vs post-colonial Zimbabwe June 3,

Slavery zimbabwe

Slavery zimbabwe