Turkish adult-

Information collected in survivors was based on history, physical examination of the cardiovascular system and Minnesota coding of resting electrocardiograms. RESULTS: Of participants to be surveyed, were examined; information was obtained on the health status in subjects, and death was ascertained in 56 participants. Thirty deaths were attributed to coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Cumulative year evaluation of participants in the age bracket years revealed coronary mortality to be high, with 7. Data used from identical subjects median age 46 years initially , and examined in two periods 12 years apart, indicated an increase in the prevalence of MetS by 1.

Turkish adult

Turkish adult

Turkish adult

Turkish adult

Maria A. Of the respondents Turkish adult other side of home. Risk aduot sleep disordered breathing and habitual snoring The Berlin questionnaire has been developed to investigate the risk for sleep disordered breathing and tested in the primary care with sleep studies. Lack of polysomnography for the diagnosis of Premature test is a limitation of the study. Sleepiness in different situations measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Original Article First Online: 28 July

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The aim of this study was to investigate head posture and hyoid bone position using lateral cephalograms of adult Class III Turkish females and males.

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Investigators listed below in the TAPES Investigation Committee participated in the study design, data collection and preparation of the manuscript:.

Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. Sleep disorders constitute an important public health problem. Mean age of the participants was Aging and female gender were associated with higher prevalence of sleep disorders except for habitual snoring. Prevalence rates of the sleep disorders among Turkish adults based on the widely used questionnaires were close to the lower end of the previous estimates reported from different parts of the world.

These findings would help for the assessment of the health burden of sleep disorders and addressing the risk groups for planning and implementation of health care. Sleep is essential for life. There is growing research evidence for an association between sleep disorders and cognitive dysfunction, work and traffic accidents as well as metabolic, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications and mortality.

In an international survey carried out in France, Italy, Japan and the USA, the estimated prevalence of insomnia ranged between 6. Interestingly, among individuals with a history of insomnia, the rate of reporting insomnia symptoms to physicians was generally low and of those who did consult a physician, few were prescribed any medication, reflecting a low awareness in this context.

Turkey is a large country with a population over 70 million adult population over 48 million with considerable cultural and social diversity. Thus, the Turkish Adult Population Epidemiology of Sleep Disorders TAPES study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints in a random sample of individuals, representative of the general adult population in the whole country.

The sample was distributed to 56 of Turkey's 81 provinces in total. Block and household address selection for sampling was carried out by the Turkish Statistical Institute TurkStat through simple random sampling; a fixed number of households were selected in the second stage from each selected PSU, as required by PPS rules.

In the final stage of sampling, subjects in the sampled households were selected by using a table of random numbers after listing the individuals who were 18 years old or older. As this method of sampling introduces a bias in regard to probabilities of selection of individuals living in households with varying numbers of adult members, data were adjusted to account for such unequal probabilities by assigning weights to each respondent in inverse proportion to the ratio of number of adults living in the respective household to the average household size.

A questionnaire consisting of questions in total was used as data collection tool. The questionnaire included information on demographics, occupational history, educational and socioeconomic status, health problems, sleeping habits, depressive symptoms, sleep complaints, and sleep disorders. ESS has been previously validated in Turkish.

The draft questionnaire was revised after a pilot study applied in a range of hospitals in Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, and Kayseri. Informed consent was signed by the participants. In the consent form, it was stated that personal information would not be used in the reporting of the results and participants seeking medical help would be consulted by TSMS. A separate letter signed by the TSMS chair and principal investigator briefly explaining the potential benefits of the study and giving information about TSMS was provided to improve participation.

The implementation and supervision of the interviews through household visits, data entry and the preliminary analysis of the results were performed by SAM Research Institution against remuneration as per a contract signed on behalf of the TSMS.

Questionnaire items used for these definitions are provided below. Having unpleasant feelings in one's legs like tingling, restlessness or throbbing when resting e. Difficulty maintaining sleep, a fragmented sleep at least three times a week for a month or more. Early morning awakening at least once a week in the last month. Positive score in at least two of the three categories in Berlin Questionnaire, including questions on snoring, witnessed apnea, daytime sleepiness, hypertension, and measurement of body mass index.

Scoring above 10 in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, which was validated in Turkish. Prevalence rates for sleep disorders were separately calculated for the age groups and genders. Standard errors of the estimates were provided. Of the respondents Mean age was Almost half of the population Almost three quarters Educational status was primary school graduate 5 years of education in Alcohol consumption was reported in Monthly household income was reported less than Turkish Liras TL , which was approximately equal to US dollars, as of the time of the commencement of the study, in As compared to the general adult population of Turkey, slight differences existed in the marital status, educational status and smoking status.

All the sleep complaints increased with age, except for insomnia. Insomnia prevalence among women increased with age. All sleep disorders and sleep symptoms were significantly more common in the subjects who reported lower education status, lower average income, smoking habit and in those who were obese.

Daytime impairment symptoms were associated with sleep disorders. Insomnia prevalence ranged from Prevalence of insomnia, RLS, excessive daytime sleepiness, risk of obstructive sleep apnea and habitual snoring were found to be Insomnia has been reported in a wide range of figures between 5.

Different definitions have been used in these studies, which make comparison of the findings difficult. Symptoms of sleep induction, night awakening and waking earlier than desired were reported on average as Insomnia symptoms more than 2 nights a week was reported as We excluded subjects reporting RLS symptoms from the insomnia symptom group, which decreased the prevalence estimate in our study.

The Berlin questionnaire has been developed to investigate the risk for sleep disordered breathing and tested in the primary care with sleep studies. Differences in the age distribution e. It is also possible that subjects might have denied such symptoms, as these would be socially undesirable. Subjects may be unaware of these symptoms, as these were not reported to them. Such possibilities could be investigated by asking such information to the partners and family members of an individual in the second stage of our study.

Excessive daytime sleepiness defined according to ESS, was reported between 6. More than half our study population had only primary school education or less.

Due to social and cultural features of our population, responding to some of the items on ESS, which are not common in daily life as travelling in a bus, driving a car, reading or going to a cinema or theater , could be difficult.

Restless legs syndrome was defined according to the four criteria proposed by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Compared to other studies conducted in Turkey, which reported prevalence of RLS as 3. These studies included population from different parts of Turkey and the second study with the prevalence finding of 9. Therefore, differences due to regions, age groups and methodology could be an explanation for these discrepancies. Higher prevalence of risk of SDB among women was surprising.

This could mostly likely be due to high prevalence of obesity among women in our study. Further analysis of the data and the second stage of the study will help to elucidate our findings. This study was conducted in a large sample of subjects, which was randomly selected as a representative sample of the general adult population. The questionnaire includes questions on various sleep complaints and disorders.

Questions on excessive daytime sleepiness were earlier validated in Turkish language. The sample was a random sample selected by the National Institute of Statistics TurkStat as representative of the adult population of Turkey. The participation rate was high. Thus our findings are highly likely to reflect the situation in the general adult population of Turkey.

Lack of polysomnography for the diagnosis of SDB is a limitation of the study. As for daily life, siesta is not common in Turkey, and as depicted by the higher prevalence of obesity, the majority of women do not work and do not exercise. Investigation of transcultural differences, particularly with the neighboring countries would provide interesting information on the epidemiology of sleep habits and sleep disorders.

Turkey has historical connections and similarities in lifestyle with Arabic countries and Iran. However, data related to sleep epidemiology, obtained through standard methodolology is scanty in these populations.

In our study, prevalence of high risk of SDB was higher than that of Iran, and prevalence of insomnia was lower than that of Greece for insomnia. However, our findings showed that problems related to sleep were not rare in the adult population.

Aging and female gender were associated with higher prevalence for most of the sleep disorders and complaints, respectively; however, insomnia prevalence increases with aging only among women and EDS and habitual snoring were more common among men. This study was the first part of the big study on epidemiology of sleep habits and sleep disorders in the Turkish adult population. Our next plan is to invite a sample of these subjects to sleep clinics for polysomnography and clinical evaluation as a second stage and to follow them as a third stage of this project.

Investigations of this sort can help us for the assessment of the health burden of sleep disorders and addressing the risk groups for planning and implementation of health care. The research was financially supported by Gen Ilac ve Saglik Urunleri and Cephalon Pharmaceuticals Companies without any impact on the study design and interpretation of the data.

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest related to the study or preparation of the manuscript. Volume 13 , Issue 4. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.

If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Sleep and Biological Rhythms.

Original Article Open Access. Email: ademir68 gmail. Mehmet Akozer Ankara, Turkey Search for more papers by this author. Tools Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article.

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Sleep and Biological Rhythms. Sleep disorders constitute an important public health problem. Mean age of the participants was Aging and female gender were associated with higher prevalence of sleep disorders except for habitual snoring.

Prevalence rates of the sleep disorders among Turkish adults based on the widely used questionnaires were close to the lower end of the previous estimates reported from different parts of the world. These findings would help for the assessment of the health burden of sleep disorders and addressing the risk groups for planning and implementation of health care. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.

Advertisement Hide. Prevalence of sleep disorders in the Turkish adult population epidemiology of sleep study. Original Article First Online: 28 July This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International Classification of Sleep Disorders , 3rd edn. Google Scholar. Obstructive sleep apnea and risk of motor vehicle crash: systematic review and meta-analysis.

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