Vicia villosa Roth [ Fabaceae ]. Vicia bivonea Raf. Hairy vetch Vicia villosa Roth is an annual or biannual viny legume with a woolly appearance due to long soft hairs borne on the stems and leaves FAO, ; Cook et al. It remains green longer than the common vetch Vicia sativa. Vicia villosa has a scrambling and prostrate habit when young.
Views Read Edit View history. A later planting date means increased probability of temperatures dipping below these ranges, histry means less likelihood that plants will grow enough to conduct adequate energy reserves, through photosynthesis, into their root storage systems. Hairy vetch readily resumes its growth during spring and, combined with a tendency to allelopathy, the stand smothers spring weeds efficiently SARE, Bigeyed bugs, mainly Geocoris punctipes Say Impotence drinking alcohol, were abundant from late March through late April on 'Vantage' vetch, lentil, and in monocultures of hairy vetch and crimson clover. For hay: Rye and vetch produce a tangled hay Hairg is quite difficult to handle. Hairy vetch Vicia villosa Roth poisoning in cattle: update and experimental induction Halry disease. This system has been perfected for Virginia and may prove Hairy vetch history elsewhere, with some modifications.
Driver intercourse. Invasive Species Compendium
Agricultural Research Center, outlines his approach: Prepare beds—just as you would for planting tomatoes—at your prime time to seed hairy vetch. Vicia biennis L. These bugs tend to feed on the reproductive parts, often causing the buds and flowers to drop. Their flowers usually have white to purple or blue hues, but may be red or yellow; they are pollinated by bumblebeeshoney beessolitary bees and other insects. Black stem occurs wherever vetches are grown in the United States and is caused by several closely related fungi. Vicia pisiformis L. Check on the adaptability of hairy vetch to your location before planting. Broadcast the seed over the soil at the rate recommended on the seed package Pediatric acute care nurse practitioner programs usually 1 to Hairy vetch history pounds of seed for every 1, square feet of garden space. Transplant seedlings using a minimum tillage planter able to cut through the mulch and firm soil around the plants. He kills the vetch when it is in its pre-bloom or bloom stage, nearing its peak N-accumulation capacity. Fertilizer is usually not needed, and N fertilizer or manure applications Hairy vetch history be detrimental because they stimulate grasses and small grains to be more Cover cum. No-till corn into killed vetch.
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- Various species of vetch hairy vetch, bigflower vetch, common vetch are sometimes used in Georgia forage systems.
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- Growing hairy vetch in gardens provides a number of benefits to home gardeners; vetch and other cover crops prevent runoff and erosion and add organic matter and important nutrients to the soil.
- Vicia is a genus of about species of flowering plants that are part of the legume family Fabaceae , and which are commonly known as vetches.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hairy vetch is a common name for several plants and may refer to: Vicia hirsuta Vicia villosa This page is an index of articles on plant species or higher taxonomic groups with the same common name vernacular name.
Some 25 species are native to the United States. This "false anthracnose" produces a brown discoloration and girdling of stems. Light, early- spring pasturing reduces excessive vine growth, delays bloom and may improve the seed yield. Typical nitrogen produced is lbs. The earlier planted corn had less moisture-conserving residue. Vetch seed remains viable for 5 years or longer.
Hairy vetch history. Hairy Vetch Benefits
Additionally, varieties self-select to adapt to local conditions after being reproduced in a certain area for many years. Minnesota research has shown better winter survival of hairy vetch grown from locally produced seed than from seed produced farther south. Consequently, where the seed was produced is as important as the variety. Hairy vetch can fix large amounts of nitrogen that are released rapidly after it has been terminated.
Decomposition and nitrogen release rates are faster if the vetch is incorporated, but total amount of nitrogen released over the entire growing season is similar to vetch left on the surface as a mulch.
Typically, hairy vetch contains 3. Conservative estimates are that 50 percent of this will be available to the following crop.
For success, hairy vetch needs to be established in late summer before mid-August in northern Pennsylvania and higher altitudes; September 1 in central Pennsylvania; and before the middle of September in southern Pennsylvania.
Later establishment will usually lead to a poor stand due to winterkill. If established more than three weeks prior to latest establishment date, hairy vetch may winter-kill due to excessive fall growth. A good place in a crop rotation for hairy vetch establish- ment is after small grain harvest. Make sure crop residue from the previous crop is well distributed if establishing hairy vetch with no-till methods and kill existing vegetation with a burndown herbicide.
More often than not, a fair amount of volunteer small grain will come up with the hairy vetch in the fall. This should be considered an advantage rather than a disadvantage. The small grains provide a quick cover, whereas the hairy vetch grows slowly in the fall.
The small grains help retain and absorb nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The small grains also provide mulch that is more resistant to decomposition and contributes to the buildup of soil organic matter. In a mixed stand of hairy vetch and oats, the oats provide quick cover and capture snow that helps protect the young vetch seedlings in the winter.
Since oats winter-kill in most of Pennsylvania, there will be a pure hairy vetch stand left in the spring. If the companion is rye, triticale, wheat, or barley, the small grain will survive the winter with the hairy vetch. The small grain provides quick cover and the vetch climbs up into the small grains in the spring.
Research in Maryland has shown that hairy vetch mixed with rye fixes almost the same amount of nitrogen as if it were grown without a companion. In spring, triticale and wheat mature at about the same time as hairy vetch, whereas rye will mature prior to hairy vetch flowering. Wheat and triticale may therefore be better suited in combination with hairy vetch if the goal is to terminate both at about the same stage of maturity prior to seed production.
It is possible to establish hairy vetch after early corn silage harvest in parts of Pennsylvania. However, attention needs to be paid to the herbicide program used; check the rotational restrictions on the label or in the Penn State Agronomy Guide.
Although hairy vetch is not generally included as a rotational crop on the herbicide label, alfalfa and clover rotational restrictions should be similar to hairy vetch. Another option is to broadcast hairy vetch in standing soybeans, but this is uncommon because of the expense of the seed and the higher risk of failure with this method than if vetch is drilled.
Seeding hairy vetch after corn grain or soybean harvest is not recommended because the vetch is then unlikely to survive the winter. Little management is usually required once hairy vetch is established.
Fertilizer is usually not needed, and N fertilizer or manure applications can be detrimental because they stimulate grasses and small grains to be more competitive.
Avoid traffic on hairy vetch as the wheels can destroy small seedlings as well as large plants. To fix much nitrogen, the hairy vetch should not be terminated too early in the spring Table 1. This means that hairy vetch should be terminated after May 1 in southern Pennsylvania, after May 10 in central Pennsylvania, and after May 20 in northern Pennsylvania and higher altitudes. The vetch will still accumulate more nitrogen until early or mid-June, but the producer may wish to terminate the vetch before that to allow timely corn planting.
A good herbicide program to terminate hairy vetch is a mix of glyphosate and 2,4-D or dicamba Table 2. Glyphosate alone is not a recommended program to kill a legume such as hairy vetch since its performance is variable.
Plant growth regulators such as 2,4-D and dicamba are effective but also require some delay weeks between application and corn planting to avoid corn herbicide injury. For faster dessication, use paraquat and 2,4-D or paraquat and atrazine. Several other herbicides may also help manage hairy vetch in corn without having to delay corn planting. Using a herbicide for termination of hairy vetch and no-till establishment of the following crop helps maintain more benefits such as superior soil protection and greater moisture conservation than if tillage is used.
The hairy vetch should be allowed to dry down for about days to facilitate ease of planting. The threat of hair pinning of residue in the seed slot is greatest when no-till planting into a vetch cover that is dying but not dry and crisp. Monitor seeding depth of corn and that hairy vetch vines do not wrap around row cleaners.
If the latter occurs, lift row cleaners up. If tillage is used, it is important to realize that most conservation tillage tools such as chisel plows or disks are unlikely to completely kill the hairy vetch. The vines of hairy vetch, which can be 4 feet tall, tend to wrap around chisel shanks, making this tool unsuitable to incorporate hairy vetch cover crops. If using a chisel plow, it is recommended to shred the vetch using a tool such as a flail mower before plowing.
Vetch does not tend to wrap around disk plow assemblies, but incorporation of the vetch may not be sufficient to allow seedbed preparation. The moldboard plow is the most effective tillage tool for fully incorporating and killing a heavy hairy vetch stand. It is important to have a lead coulter in front of each plow bottom to avoid wrapping of hairy vetch vines on the standard assembly.
Unfortunately, the moldboard plow has been shown to have greater negative effect on soil than any other common tillage tool used in field crop production. Grazing must be carefully managed because close grazing will result in the loss of the bud growing point. Hairy and common vetch mature later in spring than crimson clover, but are cold-hardy, more tolerant of low soil pH than most clovers, and have a low bloat potential.
Some common vetch varieties have been developed that are resistant to root-knot nematodes. As it begins to mature, toxins within hairy vetch can cause serious and potentially fatal animal health problems in grazing livestock. Hairy vetch can still be used effectively in a forage program.
Vicia villosa (hairy vetch)
Undersander 1 , N. Ehlke 2 , A. Kaminski 1 , J. Doll 1 , K. Kelling 1. Paul, MN September, The vetches plants of the genus Vicia are distributed throughout the temperate zones of both hemispheres.
There are about species of vetch, several of which were of agricultural importance centuries ago. Some 25 species are native to the United States. However, the species in commercial use, including hairy vetch Vicia villosa Roth , are all native to Europe or western Asia.
Hairy vetch, also called sand vetch, is a moderately winter-hardy species. It is the only vetch species that can be fall-seeded and reach maturity the following July. Hairy vetch is a legume used primarily for soil improvement along roadsides and for bank stabilization. Later seeded vetch grown as a cover crop for green manure, will supply a smaller amount of N.
Vetches are also grown for pasture. They withstand trampling, provide grazing during May and June and have a feeding value slightly lower than that of clover and alfalfa. Vetch is often grown with a small grain for forage; rye is generally used for this purpose in the Upper Midwest. The grain supports the weak stems of the vetch and reduces lodging. However, when grown together, vetch and rye make a hay that is fair in quality but tangles badly.
While most of the cultivated vetches are annuals, hairy vetch is grown as an annual or winter annual. When hairy vetch is sown in late July or August, the seed germinates readily and the plants generally form a crown before the first snow.
In spring, the plant produces 3 to 10 long, weak, branching stems or vines 3 to 6 ft long. The leaves have 12 to 20 leaflets and terminate with tendrils. Although hairy vetch is typically pubescent, the most extensively used commercial variety is called smooth vetch because it appears to have no pubescence.
The purple and white flowers appear in mid-June and are borne in a cluster, or raceme. Seed pods, bearing 4 to 8 seeds each, mature unevenly from July 10 to July Pods tends to shatter soon after maturity. When hairy vetch is spring sown, it will bloom and produce some seed the same season. Hairy vetch is the most winter-hardy of the commercial vetches, though it may not survive a winter without a snow cover. Plants on poorly drained soil will kill more easily than those on well-drained land.
Late seeding and unusually cold fall weather also result in more winter injury. Protective covering by a companion crop or crop waste reduces the danger of winter kill. Hairy vetch will not successfully overwinter in many northern areas of the Midwest. Check on the adaptability of hairy vetch to your location before planting. Although the vetches are not drought resistant, this is rarely a problem.
The crop is summer-seeded and harvested the following July before the hot, dry conditions of late summer. Vetches grow well on a wide range of soil types, but are best adapted to loamy and sandy soils. Because they are legumes, vetches can be grown on nitrogen-depleted soils without the addition of N fertilizer. The seed should be inoculated with the proper strain of Rhizobium bacteria within 24 hours of planting, unless well-nodulated peas or vetch have been grown on the field recently.
Follow instructions carefully to achieve an even coat of fresh inoculum on the seed. Seed should be sown when the soil is moist, because a hot, dry soil will reduce, if not prevent, effective inoculation.
Some fungicide seed treatment compounds can also interfere with the nodulation process. Vetch can be grown following any crop harvested before mid- August. For crops which leave a relatively uniform seedbed, vetch can be planted without plowing.
Similarly, vetch seeded into small grain stubble need not be plowed or disked before sowing. The stubble may provide enough winter protection to overwinter a vetch crop by holding snow on the field. Plowing or heavy disking is essential on heavy soils and firmly packed soils, or where there is heavy weed infestation. Grassy fields should be plowed or thoroughly cultivated during July before planting vetch. For best results, the seedbed should be firm and have adequate moisture for good seed germination.
In central Wisconsin or Minnesota, the best time to plant vetch is from July 25 to August Since rye should not be sown before August 15, rye and vetch should be drilled together August 20 to Some separation of seed will occur if the two seeds are mixed together in the same seed box. Shallower plantings will give good stands if there is sufficient moisture.
Vetch does not require nitrogen fertilization. This legume grows best in soils high in available potassium. Requirements for phosphorus, calcium and other minerals are less pronounced. However, where soil tests are very high greater than 25 to 30 ppm P and to ppm K applications can be eliminated. Vetches are more tolerant to acid soil conditions than most legumes. Soils should be limed to a pH of about 6. Hairy vetch is the most winter-hardy of the vetches.
It is the only vetch that can be grown in the Upper Midwest. Weeds are rarely a serious problem in vetch fields, especially when seeded in late summer or early fall. Repeated production of rye and vetch on the same land, however, favors growth of winter annual and perennial weeds. The crop should be planted in a relatively weed-free seedbed, and the land should be plowed and planted to a row crop every three to five years to control weeds.
Vetches are susceptible to several fungal diseases, some of which are restricted by temperature and moisture conditions to certain parts of the country. Black stem occurs wherever vetches are grown in the United States and is caused by several closely related fungi. Stem discoloration is the most distinctive symptom, although the fungi also produce large, dark, irregular lesions on the leaves. The disease can cause serious damage to hairy vetch seedlings. Root rot also occurs wherever vetches are grown.
It may be caused by one or several unrelated fungi that can attack plants at all stages of growth. Symptoms are most conspicuous in seedlings, which wilt and die. Older plants become stunted or discolored red or yellow when infected. Roots of diseased plants are badly discolored. Gray mold, or botrytis leaf spot, sometimes causes considerable defoliation of vetch.
The spots are small and dark red when young, later fading to light gray or brown with a maroon border. A disease that resembles anthracnose, but is caused by a different fungus, is prevalent on hairy vetch in the South. This "false anthracnose" produces a brown discoloration and girdling of stems. Spots on leaves are small and circular but tend to form elongated streaks. When pods are heavily spotted, the fungus penetrates the seed.
Seed development may be hindered by this disease. Downy mildew has caused considerable damage to common vetch in the Pacific Northwest.
The underside of infected leaves is covered with fine grayish fungal threads. Infected leaves turn yellow and drop off prematurely. Stem rot of vetch is caused by a fungus that is destructive during cool, wet weather.
This disease sometimes causes considerable damage in the Pacific Northwest. Root-knot nematode can cause considerable damage in vetch. Nematodes are most active in warm weather, and damage may be reduced by moderately late planting.
Resistant varieties may offer the best means of control of vetch diseases. In addition, it is advisable to avoid growing vetch continuously on the same land, use disease-free seed, and destroy volunteer plants that may harbor or spread diseases to new seedlings. Vetch is attacked by many of the insect pests of alfalfa, clover and other forage legumes, including the pea aphid, cutworm, corn earworm, fall armyworm, vetch bruchid, grasshopper, lygus bug and leafhopper.
The pea aphid may become abundant on vetch in the spring. It sucks sap from the plant, causing the leaves to turn yellow. A heavy infestation will kill the plants. If the vetch is to be used for hay and is near harvesting, it is advisable to cut the crop promptly. Pea aphid infestation may require chemical control to reduce crop damage.
The eggs are laid on the green vetch pods in the spring. The larvae enter the pod and feed on the seed, destroying its viability. They do not infest dry seed.