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Toggle navigation. Pre-existing co-morbidities such as prematurity, known cardiac or respiratory disease may cor more severe disease symptoms and prolong course of illness. Question 19 Management of acute bronchitis for nurses. Acute bronchitis should not be treated with antibiotics unless microscopic examination of the sputum reveals large numbers of bacteria. Question 9. Send patients home with a diet, provided by the dietitian and reinforced by the nurse, which provides a high-caloric intake. Caution the patient on using broncjitis cough suppressants, antihistamines, and decongestants, which may cause drying and retention of secretions. Prev Article Next Article.
Feeding wild birds harm. Bronchitis : Symptoms, Causes and Mangement
Before being discharged from the hospital, the patient should demon- strate the proper use of metered-dose inhalers. Symptom management for fever and cough. You have to go Celd porn save others. Which of the following statements are true about chronic bronchitis? Fluids, Rest, Bronchodilators. Acute bronchitis affects millions of individuals, significantly impacting patient health and the healthcare industry. A client with chronic bronchitis should drink at least 2, ml of fluid daily to thin mucus secretions; restricting fluid intake may be harmful. Fat embolism. Once you are finished, click the button below. Frequent respiratory infections such as colds or the flu.
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Encourage mobilization of secretion through ambulation, coughing, and deep breathing. Ensure adequate fluid intake to liquefy secretions and prevent dehydration caused by fever and tachypnea. Encourage rest, avoidance of bronchial irritant, and a good diet to facilitate recovery.
Instruct the patient to complete the full course of prescribed antibiotics and explain the effect of meals on drug absorption.
Caution the patient on using over-the-counter cough suppressants, antihistamines, and decongestants, which may cause drying and retention of secretions. However, cough preparations containing the mucolytic guaifenesin may be appropriate.
Advise the patient that a dry cough may persist after bronchitis because of irritation of airways. Suggest avoiding dry environments and using a humidifier at bedside. Encourage smoking cessation. Teach the patient to recognize and immediately report early signs and symptoms of acute bronchitis.
Acute bronchitis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Acute bronchitis Classification and external resources. This image shows the consequences of acute bronchitis. ICD J ICD-9 MeSH D Acute bronchitis is an inflammation of the large bronchi medium-sized airways in the lungs that is usually caused by viruses or bacteria and may last several days or weeks.
Treatment for acute bronchitis is typically symptomatic. As viruses cause most cases of acute bronchitis, antibiotics should not be used unless microscopic examination of Gram stained sputum reveals large numbers of bacteria.
In about half of instances of acute bronchitis a bacterial or viral pathogen is identified. Typical viruses include respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza, and others. This is typical of chronic bronchitis. Occasionally chest pains, fever, and fatigue or malaise may also occur. Additionally, bronchitis caused by Adenoviridae may cause systemic and gastrointestinal symptoms as well.
However the coughs due to bronchitis can continue for up to three weeks or more even after all other symptoms have subsided. Most doctors rely on the presence of a persistent dry or wet cough as evidence of bronchitis. Some conditions that predispose to bronchitis may be indicated by chest radiography. Most cases of bronchitis are caused by a viral infection and are "self-limited" and resolve themselves in a few weeks.
Acute bronchitis should not be treated with antibiotics unless microscopic examination of the sputum reveals large numbers of bacteria. Treating non-bacterial illnesses with antibiotics leads to the promotion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which increase morbidity and mortality. Many physicians recommend that to help the bronchial tree heal faster and not make bronchitis worse, smokers should quit smoking completely to allow their lungs to recover from the layer of tar that builds up over time.
An effect of antihistamines is to thicken mucus secretions. Expelling infected mucus via coughing can be beneficial in recovering from bronchitis. Expulsion of the mucus may be hindered if it is thickened. Antihistamines can help bacteria to persist and multiply in the lungs by increasing its residence time in a warm, moist environment of thickened mucus. Using antihistamines along with an expectorant cough syrup may be doubly harmful encouraging the production of mucus and then thickening that which is produced.
Using an expectorant cough syrup alone might be useful in flushing bacteria from the lungs. Using an antihistamine along with it works against the intention of using the expectorant. Bronchitis usually begins with a dry cough, including waking the sufferer at night. After a few days it progresses to a wetter or productive cough, which may be accompanied by fever, fatigue, and headache. The fever, fatigue, and malaise may last only a few days; but the wet cough may last up to several weeks.
Should the cough last longer than a month, some doctors may issue a referral to an otorhinolaryngologist ear, nose and throat doctor to see if a condition other than bronchitis is causing the irritation. It is possible that having irritated bronchial tubes for as long as a few months may inspire asthmatic conditions in some patients. In addition, if one starts coughing mucus tinged with blood, one should see a doctor. In rare cases, doctors may conduct tests to see if the cause is a serious condition such as tuberculosis or lung cancer.
This vaccine was commercialised four years later. Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi medium-size airways in the lungs. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses or bacteria and may last several days or weeks. Chronic bronchitis is not necessarily caused by infection and is generally part of a syndrome called COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ; it is defined clinically as a persistent cough that produces sputum phlegm , for at least three months in two consecutive years.
The remainder of this article deals with acute bronchitis only. Acute bronchitis is characterized by cough and sputum phlegm production and symptoms related to the obstruction of the airways by the inflamed airways and the phlegm, such as shortness of breath and wheeze.
Diagnosis is by clinical examination and sometimes microbiological examination of the phlegm. Treatment may be with antibiotics if a bacterial infection is suspected , bronchodilators to relieve breathlessness and other treatments. Signs and symptoms Bronchitis may be indicated by an expectorating cough,shortness of breath dyspnea and wheeze and occasionally chest pains, fever, and fatigue or malaise.
Sputum characteristics do not correspond with a particular etiology ie, viral vs bacterial. Pathophysiology Acute bronchitis often follows a cold or infection. The earliest clinical feature of bronchitis is increased secretion of mucus bysubmucosal glands of the trachea and bronchi. Damage caused by irritation of the airways leads to inflammation and infiltration of the lung tissue by neutrophils.
The neutrophils release substances that promote mucosal hypersecretion. Treatment In most cases, acute bronchitis is caused by viruses, not bacteria and it will go away on its own after a few days without antibiotics. To treat acute bronchitis that appears to be caused by a bacterial infection, or as a precaution,antibiotics may be given. It may accompany or closely follow a cold or the flu, or may occur on its own.
It is contagious. For some people, the cough may last as long as a few months, as the bronchial tubes heal slowly. Should the cough last longer than a month, some doctors may issue a referral to an otolaryngologist ear, nose and throat doctor to see if a condition other than bronchitis is causing the irritation.
Introduction Background Bronchitis is one of the top conditions for which patients seek medical care. Bronchitis is characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes or bronchi , which are the air passages that extend from the trachea into the small airways and alveoli.
Triggers may be infectious agents, such as viruses or bacteria, or noninfectious agents, such as smoking or inhalation of chemical pollutants or dust. Acute bronchitis is manifested by cough and, occasionally, sputum production that last for no more than 3 weeks. Although bronchitis should not be treated with antimicrobials, it is frequently difficult to refrain from prescribing them.
Accurate testing and decision-making protocols regarding who might benefit from antimicrobial therapy would be useful but are not currently available. Chronic bronchitis is defined clinically as cough with sputum expectoration for at least 3 months during a period of 2 consecutive years. Chronic bronchitis is associated with hypertrophy of the mucus-producing glands found in the mucosa of large cartilaginous airways. As the disease advances, progressive airflow limitation occurs, usually in association with pathologic changes of emphysema.
This condition is called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. Generally, bronchitis is a diagnosis made by exclusion of other conditions such as sinusitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and pneumonia.
Pathophysiology Respiratory viruses are the most common causes of acute bronchitis. The most common viruses include influenza A and B, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and coronavirus, although an etiologic agent is identified only in a minority of cases.
During an episode of acute bronchitis, the cells of the bronchial-lining tissue are irritated and the mucous membrane becomes hyperemic and edematous, diminishing bronchial mucociliary function. Consequently, the air passages become clogged by debris and irritation increases. In response, copious secretion of mucus develops, which causes the characteristic cough of bronchitis.
For instance, with mycoplasmal pneumonia, bronchial irritation results from the attachment of the organism Mycoplasma pneumoniae to the respiratory mucosa, with eventual sloughing of affected cells. Acute bronchitis usually lasts approximately 10 days. If the inflammation extends downward to the ends of the bronchial tree, into the small bronchi bronchioles , and then into the air sacs, bronchopneumonia results.
Chronic bronchitis is a condition associated with excessive tracheobronchial mucus production sufficient to cause cough with expectoration for at least 3 months for more than 2 consecutive years. The alveolar epithelium is both the target and the initiator of inflammation in chronic bronchitis. A predominance of neutrophils and the peribronchial distribution of fibrotic changes result from the action of interleukin 8, colony-stimulating factors, and other chemotactic and proinflammatory cytokines.
Airway epithelial cells release these inflammatory mediators in response to toxic, infectious, and inflammatory stimuli, in addition to decreased release of regulatory products such as ACE or neutral endopeptidase.
Chronic bronchitis can be categorized as simple chronic bronchitis, chronic mucopurulent bronchitis, or chronic bronchitis with obstruction. Mucoid sputum production characterizes simple chronic bronchitis. Persistent or recurrent purulent sputum production in the absence of localized suppurative disease, such as bronchiectasis, characterizes chronic mucopurulent bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis with obstruction must be distinguished from chronic infective asthma.
The differentiation is based mainly on the history of the clinical illness. Chronic bronchitis may result from a series of attacks of acute bronchitis, or it may evolve gradually because of heavy smoking or inhalation of air contaminated with other pollutants in the environment.
When so-called smoker's cough is continual rather than occasional, the mucus- producing layer of the bronchial lining has probably thickened, narrowing the airways to the point where breathing becomes increasingly difficult. With immobilization of the cilia that sweep the air clean of foreign irritants, the bronchial passages become more vulnerable to further infection and the spread of tissue damage.
According to estimates from national interviews taken by the National Center for Health Statistics in , approximately 9. However, an overdiagnosis of chronic bronchitis by patients and clinicians has also been suggested. The term bronchitis is often used as a common descriptor for a nonspecific and self-limited cough, thereby falsely increasing its incidence even though the patient does not meet the criteria for diagnosis. International Acute bronchitis is common throughout the world and is one of the top 5 reasons for seeking medical care in countries that collect such data.
Severe cases occasionally produce deterioration in patients with significant underlying cardiopulmonary disease or other comorbidities. Race No difference in racial distribution is reported; however, bronchitis occurs more frequently in populations with a low socioeconomic status and in people who live in urban and highly industrialized areas.
Save my selection. Question 3. Before notifying the physician or assessing the pulse, oxygen should be applied to increase the oxygen saturation, so answers A and D are incorrect. Diaphragmatic breathing — not chest breathing — increases lung expansion. NBC News [online].
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Nursing Interventions | Bronchitis | Cough
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi the larger and medium-sized airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the more distal parts of the lung parenchyma. Bronchitis can be divided into:. Acute bronchitis is characterized by the feeling of cough or small sensation in the back of the throat. Acute bronchitis is one of the most common types of lung infection.
It can occur at any age. Chronic bronchitis a type of COPD, which involves a cough that produces sputum for 3 months for 2 consecutive years. The main symptom of bronchitis is persistent cough with thick yellow gray mucous, though it may not always be present.
Other symptoms of bronchitis may include:. The bronchitis can be caused by either a virus or bacteria, though viral bronchitis is much more common. In most cases, bronchitis is caused by the same viruses that cause the common cold or influenza flu. Bronchitis can also be caused by breathing irritant substances, such as smog, chemicals in household products or tobacco smoke.
However, Smoking is the main cause of chronic long-term bronchitis and it can affect people who are passive smokers as well as smokers themselves. When symptoms like cough persist for more than 2 weeks, one should need to visit the doctor. Also chest X-ray is done to confirm for the infection.
For chronic bronchitis : There is no cure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD , but management can help slow the progression of the condition and reduce the symptoms. If one smoke, the best way to prevent COPD from getting quickly worse is to stop smoking and avoid further damage to lungs. Bronchitis can be divided into: Acute Chronic Acute bronchitis is characterized by the feeling of cough or small sensation in the back of the throat.
Other symptoms of bronchitis may include: A tight feeling in chest Breathlessness Wheezing Sore throat Slight fever and chills Headache Blocked nose and sinuses Body ache and pains Causes The bronchitis can be caused by either a virus or bacteria, though viral bronchitis is much more common. Diagnosis When symptoms like cough persist for more than 2 weeks, one should need to visit the doctor.
Management For Acute Bronchitis : Take rest Drink plenty of fluids Headaches and body aches can be treated with pain relievers like Paracetamol or Ibuprofen. The Ibuprofen not to be taken by patients of asthma. Stop smoking or inhaling irritant For chronic bronchitis : There is no cure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD , but management can help slow the progression of the condition and reduce the symptoms.
Prevention The best way to prevent bronchitis is: Avoid smoking Avoid exposure to passive smoke Practice good hand hygiene Provide proper and recommended immunizations to the children References : www.