Colleague's E-mail is Invalid. Your message has been successfully sent to your colleague. Save my selection. This article explores information relating to female adolescents knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward human immunodeficiency virus HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases STDs in Carriacou. Focus group method was employed with 2 age groups of female adolescent students.
Recognition that sexuality is socially constructed and changing rapidly is essential to broadening the research agenda and improving interventions. METHOD: Cross-sectional study with ihv consecutive convenience sample of female adolescents aged 13 to 20 years evaluated in womn anonymous testing site for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in Brazil. Authors frequently observe that knowing how behaviro reduce risk effectively is not in itself enough to change behavior; Sexual behavior of hiv women must have the power to make the required changes. African marriage is often a long, ambiguous process rather than a unitary event. However, it was not as important as I would have expected for students highlighted that their parents are sometimes very Gay finger arsehole when they are asked certain wpmen and refused to give them an honest and straightforward answer. BMC Public Health 9 It is important to emphasize that this sample was composed of young people with low income and education, which represents a high risk for HIV infection, as reported in the literature. Dryness alone may lead to abrasive sex and lesions, with the same effect.
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Half of the 20 million new STDs reported each year were among young people aged 15 to 24 3. Sexual behavior of hiv women an excessive preoccupation with sexual fantasies, urges or behaviors that is difficult to control, causes somen distress, or negatively affects your health, job, relationships or other parts of your life. Bolivia Brazil Lipitor and prostate Guyana Peru. What is HIV? Coker AL. Hypersexuality: A critical review and introduction to the nehavior cycle. To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Email Address. AIDS Behav ;14 2 Doesn't have HIV. Many young people engage in sexual risk behaviors and experiences that can result in unintended health outcomes. Accessed February 20, W Women. Sexually Transmitted Beehavior Surveillance pdf icon. Behavior Therapy. Acceptance and commitment therapy for problematic internet pornography use: A randomized trial.
Alcohol, drugs, and risky sexual behavior are related to HIV infection in female adolescents.
- Compulsive sexual behavior is sometimes called hypersexuality, hypersexuality disorder or sexual addiction.
- Many young people engage in sexual risk behaviors and experiences that can result in unintended health outcomes.
- This tool allows you to access information that is individually tailored to meet your needs.
- Though HIV diagnoses a among women have declined in recent years, more than 7, women received an HIV diagnosis in the United States and dependent areas in
- Risky sexual behavior is the description of the activity that will increase the probability that a person engaging in sexual activity with another person infected with a sexually transmitted infection will be infected  or become pregnant, or make a partner pregnant.
Colleague's E-mail is Invalid. Your message has been successfully sent to your colleague. Save my selection. This article explores information relating to female adolescents knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward human immunodeficiency virus HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases STDs in Carriacou. Focus group method was employed with 2 age groups of female adolescent students. Content analysis was carried out by the researcher to analyze the data. Themes were developed using coding and thematic analysis.
JanaganJohnson sta. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. In many countries throughout the world, STDs and unplanned pregnancy have always occurred among adolescents.
These were of considerable value in the way they extended knowledge and understanding of behavioral responses to the epidemic. Information from the AIDS Secretariat, and as cited by Dicks,  stated that research done in Antigua on AIDS knowledge, attitudes, practices, and behavior suggests the need for HIV intervention programs in the preadolescent and adolescent population.
The studies done provided clear evidence of early sexuality. Most Antiguan adolescents do not perceive themselves at risk for becoming infected due in part to the fact that many adolescents particularly young teens are not able to understand the future consequences of their behavior and also due to the perceived perception that AIDS is a disease of the larger developed nations such as the United States. In addition, Barbados has conducted a KAPB study to access the knowledge, attitudes, and values of young people in relation to HIV and the gender of human rights dimension of the epidemic.
The data collected from the Barbados KAPB research revealed that although the majority of respondents were generally sympathetic to HIV persons; there remained a small proportion that advocated isolation, thereby demonstrating a mixture of fear, ignorance, and intolerance. Such attitudes would need to be addressed through a comprehensive program of education. It is the intention of the researcher to achieve that purpose. It is part of the tri-island state of Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique with Grenada being the mainland and Carriacou and Petite Martinique its dependencies.
Carriacou has an area of 13 square miles with an approximate population of people. Hillsborough Secondary will be the focus for this research. According to a report from the Ministry of Health in Grenada, Family Planning Unit teenage pregnancy in Carriacou  varied over the past 13 years.
Between and teenage pregnancies increased by 9. Between and the number of births to mothers 14 to 19 years fluctuated between 15 in and 22 in , and was 18 in In , the number of births to teenage mothers in Carriacou had dropped significantly to 9 pregnancies.
However, in and , there were an increase of 12 and 14, respectively, with 6 teenagers between those years testing positive for an STD and 1 testing positive for HIV.
The most common form of STD among the teenagers was herpes. Furthermore, a report from the Ministry of Health in Grenada, the Grenada National Strategic Plan for Health, to  indicated that teenage pregnancy and STDs continue to be an issue of concern to health workers.
This plan focuses on enhancing collaboration among the many sectors to achieve universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for the population of the State of Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique. The HFLE is a Life Skills Education program which promotes behavioral change among youths and aim to help young people protect themselves from HIV infection and to safe guard their reproductive health.
Therefore, the HFLE is essentially a classroom education program that seeks to empower children with knowledge and skills for healthy living, preparing them to cope effectively with the many challenges of life. The first theory is called the Information Provision Model and it simply states that information about HIV and possible ways to avoid it are essential for adopting health-protective practices. Additionally this model contends that there are 3 fundamental determinants of AIDS-risk reduction: information regarding HIV transmission and prevention; motivation to change HIV-risk behavior; and behavioral skills for performing specific HIV-preventive acts.
Fourteen female adolescents within the age range of 14 to 17 years were selected from Hillsborough Secondary School in Carriacou. These individuals were selected using random purposive sampling from the various forms based on the age range. Every female adolescent throughout the 5 forms who falls within the age range of 14 to 17 years was identified. A random sample of 14 female adolescents was then selected from such group. Seven female adolescents were selected within the age range of 14 to 15 years and another 7 were selected between the ages of 16 to 17 years.
This strategy according to Gay et al adds credibility to the study, although the initial sample is based on purposive selection. The age range of 14 to 17 years was selected because it was a reflection of the peak of the adolescent stage and teenage pregnancy. There was 1 interview conducted with each focus group and it lasted for approximately 2 h.
The discussions were tape recorded with the consent of the group. Morgan  emphasizes the purpose of doing focus group interviews is to bring several different perspectives into contact. Focus group interviews are utilized to understand what people experience and perceived about the focus of inquiry.
The researcher is able to find out what participants think, feel, or know about the researcher's focus of inquiry, explore a topic that is new to him or her and participants have an opportunity to listen to each other's contribution, which may spark new insights or help them develop ideas more clearly.
The aim of focus groups is to get closer to participant's understanding of and perspectives on certain issues. The focus group can be used either as a self-contained means of data collection or as a supplement to other methods, depending on how it fits into the overall research plan.
The qualitative researcher brings together relatively small group of people, typically 6 to 8 to find out what they think, feel, or know about the researcher's focus of inquiry. The most important of the group interview is using the dynamics of group interaction to gain information and insights that are less likely to be gained through individual interviews of participant observation.
In a well-conducted focus group interview, people have an opportunity to think aloud about their private perceptions of issues or events, sometimes coming to new understanding through interaction with others in the group. Furthermore, Morgan  believes that focus group interviews are especially useful for investigating what people think and for uncovering why people think as they do which is relevant to understanding risk reduction behavior among adolescents in this study.
Students were asked a series of questions which stimulated a lot of discussions. Many interviewing techniques were employed especially probing, summarizing, and open-ended questions which allowed the researcher to gather in-depth information from the participants. Focus groups were chosen because according to Padgett  they draw on the synergy between members.
Focus groups provided information about a range of ideas and feelings that adolescents have toward HIV and other STDs. It also allowed for a more natural conversation to develop among the participants as it lends itself to the stimulation of a dialog. Additionally, it provided the researcher with an opportunity to observe the interactions among individuals with regard to the issue under investigation.
Despite these advantages of having a focus group, the researcher had to be very mindful to ensure that all participants in the focus groups were given an equal opportunity to voice their opinions and answer all the research questions. She paid careful attention to the group dynamics and was vigilant at all times ensuring that all the participants regardless of their personality have contributed toward the discussion of the group.
According to Gay et al,  data analysis is an attempt by researchers to summarize collected data in a dependable and accurate manner. Data were collected from written as well as audio tape that was transcribed word for word verbatim and verified for accuracy and completeness.
Content analysis is defined as a systematic research method for analyzing textual information in standardized way that allows researchers to make inferences about that information. These themes were used as a guide for the focus group interviews. The information collected from the 2 focus groups interview was divided into the following themes. The discussion was very vivacious as the students shared willingly their opinions and ideas. Even though some of the students were in disagreement with some of the related facts, the group dynamics allowed for well-informed group discussions.
Some people may look very healthy and they may be infected without even knowing that they have the disease. The misconception of weight loss being associated with HIV was evident as these 2 students were of the belief that once a person start losing weight drastically and have many sexual partners he or she might have HIV.
To help clarify this ignorance, probing was used with follow-up questions to help the students understand that the person weight loss can be attributed to some other factor in their life. The response received was somewhat shocking as a student said. Yes it can be but not when the person is sleeping with Tom, Dick, Harry and sometimes Larry and you hear Larry might have it.
Even though these 2 students held the misconception and were of the opinion that drastic weight loss can be used as a clear indication that a person might be HIV positive, they were all in agreement that in order for the virus to spread, an HIV positive individual does not have to look sick or miserable to spread the virus to another individual.
However, they indicated that we are living in a world where this word no longer exist for teenagers as they are too exposed to many things that can have an influence on their ability to abstain. Miss we are no longer living in the stone-age where sex was a taboo, nowadays girls are experimenting early. This is a clear indication that sex is no longer reserved for marriage. Compared with a generation ago, more adolescents believed that sex before marriage is all right as long as 2 people are emotionally committed to each other.
Trends in the sexual activity of adolescents are consistent with their views. It is believed that earlier intercourse is linked to shorter and more sporadic sexual relationships therefore, adolescents are more likely to have multiple sexual partners.
Another means of protection that was identified was the use condoms. For they believe that these devices can help to stop the virus from travelling through the blood stream of the woman.
The HFLE as mentioned earlier is a Life Skills Education program which promotes behavioral change among youths and aim to help young people protect themselves from HIV infection and to safe guard their reproductive health.
This program calls upon the school system to take on a more child-centered approach strengthening teacher education to improve the delivery of HFLE throughout the schools in the English speaking Caribbean.
One student claimed that she had already known a lot of information about HIV and STD before the teacher even taught them. What the H. E teacher taught us was nothing new to me.
I already knew from watching T. V and going on the computer. This source of the information was considered to be the main route of knowledge for adolescents in international studies done by Tan et al  and Tavoosi et al  in China and Iran, respectively.
These studies found that adolescents received most of their information through the mass media. However, in a Caribbean study done by Avant Garde Media  found that the students received most of their information from the school.
Interestingly, in their study, they found that the school was a much more important source of knowledge for female respondents as more than half Additionally, in another Caribbean study done by Dicks  with Antiguan adolescents found the students received most of their information from within the school setting.
Furthermore, during our discussions the students mentioned that they usually talk to their parents or adult relatives about puberty, sex, HIV, and STDs. However, it was not as important as I would have expected for students highlighted that their parents are sometimes very uncomfortable when they are asked certain questions and refused to give them an honest and straightforward answer. As a result of this they would prefer to seek information from the HFLE teacher at school.
Having knowledge does not indicate that the behavior of adolescents will be reflected in this knowledge. This behavior is contrary to the knowledge expressed as all students indicated earlier that the main route of transmission of HIV or STDs is through unprotected sex. Adolescent girls are especially likely to suffer from early risky sex.
Apgar score Ballard Maturational Assessment. Dawson GN, et al. Sexual Medicine Reviews. HIV sexual risk behavior among low-income women experiencing intimate partner violence: The role of posttraumatic stress disorder. If you do have HIV, being the insertive partner or top for anal sex is the highest risk sexual activity for transmitting HIV. Hypersexuality: A critical review and introduction to the "sexhavior cycle.
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You can also use other HIV prevention methods, below. If you are living with HIV , the most important thing you can do to prevent transmission and stay healthy is to take your HIV medication known as antiretroviral therapy or ART , every day, exactly as prescribed.
There also are other options to choose from, below. The more of these actions you take, the safer you can be. Abstinence means not having oral, vaginal, or anal sex. The longer you wait to start having oral, vaginal, or anal sex, the fewer sexual partners you are likely to have in your lifetime. Also, encourage your partners who are HIV-negative to get tested for HIV so they are sure about their status and can take action to keep themselves healthy.
Use HIV. Content Source: HIV. Many Federal agencies have developed public awareness and education campaigns to address HIV prevention, treatment, care, and research. Also included is information about campaigns related to the prevention and diagnosis of hepatitis B and C. El VIH es una amenaza de salud grave para las comunidades latinas, quienes se encuentran en gran desventaja respecto de la incidencia de esta enfermedad en los Estados Unidos.
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