The circulatory system , also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system , is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients such as amino acids and electrolytes , oxygen , carbon dioxide , hormones , and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases , stabilize temperature and pH , and maintain homeostasis. The circulatory system includes the lymphatic system , which circulates lymph. Lymph is essentially recycled excess blood plasma after it has been filtered from the interstitial fluid between cells and returned to the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular from Latin words meaning "heart" and "vessel" system comprises the blood, heart, and blood vessels. The circulatory system of the blood is seen as having two components, a systemic circulation and a pulmonary circulation.
Failure of these safeguards results in cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes. Aorticopulmonary septum Protein signalling in heart development. Publications Code of practice Diving Adult portal system circulatory anatomy. Better known discovery of pulmonary circulation was by Vesalius Femdom nannies successor at PaduaRealdo Colomboin It is often seen in bacterial infections and shock reactions. Central venous Right atrial ventricular pulmonary artery wedge Left atrial ventricular Aortic. As such, its viscosity is changeable depending on osmotic balance and cell load. The baby's circulation and blood flow through the heart now function Adlut an adult's.
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A wave of contraction then spreads over the whole atrium and drives blood into the ventricle, where blood from the two sources tends to remain separate. Info Print Print. Thank you for your feedback. Mammals also evolved from reptiles, but not from the same group as did birds, and must have developed their double circulation independently from early reptiles. Some Adult portal system circulatory anatomy does occur, and this blood tends to be directed Lyrics pussy wet the spiral valve into the arterial arch leading to the body. Here Are 11 Ways to Cope. Bird circulatory systems have many similarities to those of reptiles, from which they evolved. Both right and left atria receive oxygenated blood, which must be directed primarily to the carotid arteries supplying the head and brain. Unlike lungfishes and amphibians, reptiles depend entirely on their lungs for respiration. When the fetus becomes an infant, the infant breathes for the first time and the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus close. Learn Adult portal system circulatory anatomy fun facts about the heart. Article Media. You can do a lot of prep work to make the perfect sleep environment. The ventricle is variously subdivided in different groups.
The blood vessels of the body are functionally divided into two distinctive circuits: pulmonary circuit and systemic circuit.
- Oxygen enters the bloodstream through tiny membranes in the lungs that absorb oxygen as it is inhaled.
- Human fetal circulation differs from adult human circulation or even those of children in so many ways.
- Modern amphibians are characterized by the flexibility of their gaseous exchange mechanisms.
Portal system is a system of blood vessels that begins and ends in capillaries. Hepatic portal carries nutrients from digestion to the liver to store and metabolize, after a meal. Portal system can be defined as a part of the systemic circulation, in which blood draining from the capillary bed of one structure flows through larger vessels to supply the capillary bed of another structure, before returning to the heart.
Simply, a system of blood vessels that begins and ends in capillaries is called portal system. Following is a diagram showing the blood circulation of the body. We can see hepatic portal vein here a part of portal system , this vein begins in a capillary of intestines and ends in another capillary of liver. The hepatic portal circulation travels from the intestine of the digestive tract to the liver.
The function of this portal system is to carry nutrients from the digestive tract to the liver after a meal to store and metabolize. What is a portal system? What is the purpose of the hepatic portal?
Saikat R. Mar 7, Answer: Portal system is a system of blood vessels that begins and ends in capillaries. Explanation: Portal system can be defined as a part of the systemic circulation, in which blood draining from the capillary bed of one structure flows through larger vessels to supply the capillary bed of another structure, before returning to the heart.
Diagram of hepatic portal system :. Related questions In what organ is the waste from the digestion process collected for eventual disposal? What organs are affected by diverticulitis? What are the names of the tissue layers of the stomach? What are dimensions of the small intestine? What are reasons to explain why the small intestine is Where does the process of digestion begin? Are nutrients absorbed from the large intestine? How do nutrients, absorbed by the small intestine, travel to the individual cells of the human Is the pH of the small intestine lower or higher than that of the stomach?
Why is the pH of the Why is the stomach such a muscular organ? How is the stomach lining adapted to its function? When a portion of the intestines do not have adequate blood flow, what causes sepsis to occur? The villi of the small intestine contain many capillaries. Why are the capillaries so important? See all questions in Digestive System. Impact of this question views around the world. You can reuse this answer Creative Commons License.
The heart is a muscular organ made up mostly of cardiac muscle, which is specific to the heart. Is the Heart a Muscle or an Organ? From here, the blood flows into the left ventricle. More About. Nevertheless, several parallel changes occurred, such as the common incorporation of the sinus venosus into the right auricle.
Adult portal system circulatory anatomy. related stories
What is a portal system? What is the purpose of the hepatic portal? | Socratic
This content is taken from our book, Managing Pig Health, the industry leading pig publication. Available now from 5mBooks. First, study Fig. The circulatory system consists of the heart which is a four chamber suction and pressure pump that moves blood through two separate systems, one to and from the lungs and the other around the body.
The blood returns to the heart from the body through a series of veins, which terminate in two large veins called the anterior and posterior vena cava. Blood returns from the lungs through the pulmonary veins. The top two chambers or auricles receive the blood from the veins and pass it into the strong muscular bottom chambers called the ventricles. Oxygen depleted blood from the body enters the right auricle, where it is then pumped into the right ventricle leaving by two pulmonary arteries that deliver the still un-oxygenated blood to the lungs.
Oxygenated blood from the lungs is then returned through the pulmonary veins to the left auricle, where it is pumped to the left ventricle and finally out through the main artery, the aorta, to be transported around the body. If the lungs are damaged by disease such as pneumonia, they cannot oxygenate the blood efficiently, the tissues become starved of oxygen and cannot function properly. When the pig walks or runs its skin may then become blue and it has difficulty breathing.
Chronic pneumonia may also hold back the blood supply causing congestion and heart problems. Arteries are the muscular tubes that carry the blood away from the heart. These branch off into smaller arteries like the branch of a tree eventually becoming very fine arterioles.
The arterioles branch further into microscopic tubes called capillaries which exchange fluid through their walls. This enables the cells of the body to receive both oxygen and nutrients and eliminate carbon dioxide. The capillaries then combine to form first small veins, which in turn lead to larger ones. The blood now contains carbon dioxide and reduced levels of oxygen and returns to the heart via the anterior and posterior vena cava to recommence its circulation around the lung.
There is an important subsidiary circulatory system called the hepatic i. You will see in Fig. They keep branching until they form capillaries which then join together to form the portal vein which carries the blood to the liver. There the portal vein breaks up into another capillary-type network, where the blood comes into direct contact with the liver cells. The vessels then join together again to form the hepatic veins which discharge the blood into the posterior vena cava.
The blood from the intestines carries nutrients from the food eaten and also sometimes harmful substances toxins. The liver cells are able to modify some of the nutrients for use elsewhere and also to store some. They also detoxify harmful substances. The liver is supplied with oxygen via a separate artery, the hepatic artery. The internal linings of the heart are covered by a smooth shiny tissue called the endocardium. The rate of contraction is known as the pulse rate.
This can be felt either at the base of the ear or under the tail and varies from beats per minute in the young piglet to 70 in the adult. The blood consists of two main parts, a fluid called plasma and cells.
Nutrients such as proteins, sugars and fats are circulated throughout the body in the plasma and waste products are collected to be detoxified in the liver and excreted via the kidneys.
The plasma also carries hormones which are produced in one part of the body and act on another. It also carries antibodies to combat infection. The plasma also supports red blood cells erythrocytes which contain the substance haemoglobin whose main function is to transport oxygen around the body and bring back carbon dioxide to be expelled from the lungs. The next largest group in the plasma are the white cells leucocytes which are the first line of defence against infectious agents.
The third type of cells are blood platelets. These are really small fragments of cells which are associated with the clotting mechanisms of blood. When blood clots the liquid that remains outside the clot is serum and this contains the antibodies. Serum may be used to inject into pigs to provide an immediate source of immunity. Failure of blood to clot and subsequent loss of red cells into the tissues is not uncommon in pigs and occurs in thrombocytopaenic purpura - a clotting defect disease - and warfarin poisoning.
Anaemia - Any reduction in the number of red cells or in the haemoglobin they contain is described as anaemia and the extent of this is measured either by determining the number of red cells or the level of haemoglobin in the blood.
The causes of anaemia include:. Antibody - The protective proteins produced in response to the antigenic stimulation. They fight infections. Antigen - This is the foreign protein contained in viruses, bacteria, fungi or toxins. The body responds by producing an antibody. Antiserum - This is serum containing higher than normal amounts of antibody against a specific antigen.
It is used by injection to give an immediate temporary immunity. Blood count - A laboratory test that determines the numbers of red and white cells and platelets in the blood. Blood platelets thrombocytes - These are cell fragments involved in blood clotting. Blood poisoning - A common term used to describe large numbers of pathogenic bacteria in the blood. Capillaries - Very tiny tubes about the diameter of a red cell. These allow water oxygen and nutrients to diffuse out to the tissues.
Cyanosis - Blueing of the skin and extremities due either to anoxia, toxaemia toxins in the blood or septicaemia pathogenic bacteria in the blood.. Endocardium - This is the surface tissue lining the inside of the heart. Endocarditis is the end result of the invasion of this tissue by bacteria, in particular erysipelothrix which causes erysipelas and streptococci.
Both organisms often cause growths on the heart valves called valvular endocarditis. This makes the valves leaky and less effective. Erythrocytes - These are the red blood cells.
In the normal pig there are approximately 7 million per mm3. Globulins - The proteins that make up the antibodies.
They are called gamma globulins. Granulocytes - These consist of specialised cells called neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils that engulf and destroy bacteria and viruses. They are also called macrophages. Haematuria - Blood in the urine often seen in cystitis - inflammation of the bladder.
Haemoglobin - This is the chemical substance in the red cells that is involved in the transport of oxygen. Haemoglobinuria - Free haemoglobulin in the urine resulting from the breakdown of blood cells. Haemolysis - This is the process by which haemoglobin is released from the red cells when the cell envelope is damaged. Hydropericardium - Excess fluid around the heart. It is often seen in bacterial infections and shock reactions. Hypoglycaemia - A low level of sugar in the blood.
Common in newborn piglets. Leucocytes - These are the white blood cells of which there are two types, granulocytes and agranulocytes. The granulocytes contain granules in the cell and depending on how they stain they are called neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Neutrophils engulf bacteria phagocytosis , eosinophils increase in chronic disease particularly parasitic disease.
Basophils produce a substance called histamine during allergic reactions. Agranulocytes consist of monocytes and lymphocytes.
Lymph - Excessive tissue fluid drained by the lymphatic system. It is similar to plasma. Lymphatics - A drainage system that removes fluids from tissues and the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes - These act as filters for lymph and are one of the body's first defences against infection. Lymphocytes - These are important cells of the immune system producing immunoglobulins.
They are of two types, T and B. The total leucocytes in a normal pig are approximately 15, per mm3 and numbers increase markedly with bacterial infections. However in some viral diseases their numbers can be significantly reduced. Macrophages - These take in and usually destroy foreign materials including bacteria and viruses. See granulocytes and monocytes. Monocytes - These cells engulf bacteria. When they migrate into tissues they become localised tissue macrophages.
Myocarditis - Inflammation of the heart muscle. Any scientific term ending with the term "itis" implies inflammation.
Inflammation is the body's response to tissue damage and is associated with swelling, poor circulation, reddening, pressure and pain. Diseases causing myocarditis include streptococcal infections, certain virus infections and deficiencies of Vitamin E or iron.
Poisons such as selenium and monensin and the porcine stress syndrome can also cause marked changes to heart muscle. Oedema - Swelling of tissues due to excess fluid. Common in the udder of the newly farrowed sow. Oxyhaemoglobin - This is haemoglobin combined with oxygen. It is the vehicle by which oxygen is carried around the body.