Few nutrients are as important as protein. If you don't get enough through your diet, your health and body composition suffer. It turns out that the right amount of protein for any one individual depends on many factors, including their activity level, age, muscle mass, physique goals and current state of health. This article takes a look at optimal amounts of protein and how lifestyle factors like weight loss, muscle building and activity levels factor in. Proteins are the main building blocks of your body, used to make muscles, tendons, organs and skin, as well as enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters and various tiny molecules that serve many important functions.
Please don't show me this again for 90 days. Dhillon J. Flint A. As suggested by Bollwein and others [ 13 ], the protein distribution at older age is of higher importance than the total daily amount per se. The high proportion of animal-protein consumption in developed countries [ 19 ] raises both health and environmental concerns. Adult protein requirements, the future profitability and consumer acceptance of this product remains unclear [ 55 ]. It is also important to eat the right type of proteins, including some that include the amino acid leucine, which has been shown to preserve body muscle. In addition, the pattern of protein consumption was suggested to be of greater importance than the total daily amount consumed [ 13 ], which will be discussed in the next section. Adult protein requirements protein distribution positively influences h muscle protein synthesis in healthy adults.
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Article Sources. You shouldn't count on having a steak for dinner, and then no protein until tomorrow night's dinner. The RDA represents the minimum daily intake for active healthy adults. In children proteib young adults, uneven meal distribution of protein appears not to adversely affect growth. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. I may have been taking too much protein because of the gym. Younger adults have the ability to store small amounts of amino acids protein's building blocks from one meal to the proteln, but that changes in requiirements around the age of 70, according to Greenwood. The RDA is the amount of Davies vs spokane nutrient you need to meet your basic nutritional requirements. Adult protein requirements Care. Eating plenty of erquirements has numerous benefits for Adult protein requirements loss, muscle gain and health. Current Status and Errors of Omission Criteria for protein requirements are based on providing the minimum essential amino acids EAA necessary as building blocks for new protein structures [ 5 ]. Protein Needs. Good sources of protein include red meat, fish, chicken, turkey, eggs, dried beans, Adult protein requirements, nuts and seeds.
Staying Sharp empowers you to take control of your brain health as you age.
- The recommended dietary allowance, or RDA, is the required intake level of a particular nutrient necessary to prevent deficiency and promote good health.
- Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide nutrition advice aimed at promoting healthy dietary choices for life-long health and reducing risk of chronic diseases.
- If you're over 70 and typically have just toast and jam for breakfast, you might want to add a portion of protein to your meal.
- Protein is essential to good health.
Protein is essential to good health. You need it to put meat on your bones and to make hair, blood, connective tissue, antibodies, enzymes, and more. But the message the rest of us often get is that our daily protein intake is too high. The RDA is the amount of a nutrient you need to meet your basic nutritional requirements.
To determine your daily protein intake, you can multiply your weight in pounds by 0. But use of the RDA to determine how much protein you need daily has actually caused a lot of confusion. Rodriguez was among more than 40 nutrition scientists who gathered in Washington, D.
In fact, the reports suggest that Americans may eat too little protein, not too much. The potential benefits of higher daily protein intake, these researchers argue, include preserving muscle strength despite aging and maintaining a lean, fat-burning physique. However, over the last several years, the public health message has shifted away from desired percentages of protein, fats and carbohydrates.
Research on how much protein is the optimal amount to eat for good health is ongoing, and is far from settled. The value of high-protein diets for weight loss or cardiovascular health, for example, remains controversial. Before you start ramping up your daily protein intake, there are a few important things to consider. The table below provides some healthier sources of protein. Aim for protein sources low in saturated fat and processed carbohydrates and rich in many nutrients.
One more thing: If you increase protein, dietary arithmetic demands that you eat less of other things to keep your daily calorie intake steady. The switches you make can affect your nutrition, for better or for worse. For example, eating more protein instead of low-quality refined carbohydrates, like white bread and sweets, is a healthy choice — though how healthy the choice is also depends on the total protein package.
I may have been taking too much protein because of the gym. Very interesting article. Made me rethink my lifestyle choices. Who to trust? Thanks for the information, Each and every point mention in the article are really helpful. But along with that one should also take care the quantity consumed. A very informative post on consuming the right amount and the right sources of protein to stay healthy! It is important to consume the optimal amount of protein as over-consumption or under-consumption may lead to serious health problems.
Choosing the right source of protein will have a significant effect on your health. Mikkel Hindhede found humans need a bit over one gram of protein for every ten pounds body weight. Related Information: Healthy Eating: A guide to the new nutrition. Related Posts: Eat only every other day and lose weight?
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A common recommendation for gaining muscle is 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight, or 2. Another error of omission in the Dietary Guidelines relates to recognition that the efficiency of protein utilization decreases throughout adult life [ 6 ]. AARP Membership. Get nutrition tips and advice to make healthy eating easier. On average, women should consume 0.
Adult protein requirements. Browse by Topic
Numerous studies have tried to determine the optimal amount of protein for muscle gain but many reach different conclusions. Some studies show that more than 0. Though it's hard to give exact figures due to conflicting study results, about 0.
If you're carrying a lot of body fat, using either your lean mass or your goal weight, instead of your total body weight, is a good idea, as it's mostly your lean mass that determines the amount of protein you need. Disregarding muscle mass and physique goals, people who are physically active do need more protein than people who are sedentary. If your job is physically demanding, you walk a lot, run, swim or do any sort of exercise, you need to eat more protein. Endurance athletes also need significant amounts of protein — about 0.
This can help prevent osteoporosis and sarcopenia reduction in muscle mass , both significant problems in the elderly.
People recovering from injuries may also need more protein Protein has been unfairly blamed for a number of health problems. Though protein restriction is helpful for people with pre-existing kidney problems, protein has never been shown to cause kidney damage in healthy people 21 , In fact, a higher protein intake has been found to lower blood pressure and help fight diabetes, which are two of the main risk factors for kidney disease 23 , Any assumed detrimental effects of protein on kidney function are outweighed by its positive effects on these risk factors.
Protein has also been blamed for osteoporosis, which seems strange considering that studies show that it can, in fact, prevent this condition 25 , Overall, there is no evidence that a reasonably high protein intake has any adverse effects in healthy people trying to stay healthy. The best sources of protein are meats, fish, eggs and dairy products, as they have all the essential amino acids that your body needs.
Some plants are fairly high in protein as well, such as quinoa , legumes and nuts. If you're a healthy person trying to stay healthy, then simply eating quality protein with most of your meals, along with nutritious plant foods should bring your intake to an optimal range.
In nutrition science, "grams of protein" refers to grams of the macronutrient protein, not grams of a protein-containing food like meat or eggs. An 8-ounce serving of beef weighs grams but only contains 61 grams of actual protein. Similarly, a large egg weighs 46 grams but only packs 6 grams of protein. This article lists 20 common reasons why you're not losing weight. Many people stop losing before they reach a weight they are happy with.
The importance of eating enough protein can not be overstated. Here are 20 high-protein foods that can help you lose weight, feel great and gain….
Eating plenty of protein has numerous benefits for weight loss, muscle gain and health. Here are 10 science-backed reasons to eat more protein. Spencer Nadolsky. However, there are vastly different opinions on how much protein people actually need. Most official nutrition organizations recommend a fairly modest protein intake. The efficacy of calcium and protein are interrelated [ 3 ]. Calcium supplements are largely ineffective for remodeling of bone matrix if protein is limiting.
The long-held belief that increased dietary protein could cause bone loss as reflected in increase urinary calcium is incorrect [ 33 ] and protein is now recognized to increase intestinal calcium absorption in addition to enhancing bone matrix turnover [ 34 ]. Similar results have been observed with studies of muscle health in elderly where the efficiency of EAA use is reduced [ 16 , 17 ]. The level of EAA required to stimulate muscle protein synthesis is increased in part due to reduced anabolic stimulus of hormones.
Here again it is important to distinguish the difference between outcome measures of muscle protein metabolism versus nitrogen balance. Long-term prospective outcomes with protein supplementation and muscle function are not available. However cross-sectional studies support the idea that elderly in higher percentiles of protein intake have less age-related decline in lean tissue mass [ 35 ].
These conditions are characterized by dysregulation of glucose metabolism and have raised new questions about the quantity and quality of carbohydrates in the diet. Early research with MetS evaluated reducing dietary carbohydrates with fats [ 36 ]. While increasing dietary fats improved glycemic control and reduced cardiovascular disease CVD risk, the prospect of increasing dietary fat remains controversial.
Replacement of carbohydrates with protein improves glycemic control measured as reduced post-prandial hyperinsulinemia [ 37 ] and in T2DM corrects hyperglycemia and HbA1c [ 13 ].
These conditions are 4-times more important for heart disease and all cause mortality than elevated cholesterol or LDL concentration [ 38 ].
Protein should be a central part of a complete diet for adults. While physical growth occurs only for a brief period of life, the need to repair and remodel muscle and bone continues throughout life. Maintaining the health of muscle and bone is an essential part of the aging process and critical to maintain mobility, health and the active tissues of our body.
Protein needs become more important during periods of reduced food intake such as weight loss or during periods of recovery after illness or during aging. Protein needs for adults relate to body weight. Dietary protein need is often presented as a percentage of energy intake. However, protein needs are constant across all energy intakes. So at low energy intakes, protein needs to be a higher percentage of total calories and at high energy intakes protein can be reduced as a percentage of total calories.
In general, dietary protein should be established first in any diet in proportion to body weight and then carbohydrates and fats added determined by energy needs. Protein is an important part of good nutrition at every meal. Vitamins and minerals can fulfill nutrient needs on a once-per-day basis but for protein the body has no ability to store a daily supply.
To maintain healthy muscles and bones for adults, at least 30 g of protein should be consumed at more than one meal. Breakfast is an important meal for dietary protein because the body is in a catabolic state after an overnight fast. A meal with at least 30 g of protein is required to initiate repletion of body proteins.
Protein at breakfast is also critical for regulation of appetite and daily food intake. Aging populations confront increasing incidence of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia which have raised new questions about dietary ratios of carbohydrates, fats, and protein for life-long health.
The RDA represents the minimum daily intake for active healthy adults. For most adults, replacing some dietary carbohydrates with protein will help to maintain body composition and mobility, improve blood lipids and lipoproteins, and help to control food intake. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Nutr Metab Lond v. Nutr Metab Lond. Published online Mar Donald K Layman 1.
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Donald K Layman: ude. Received Feb 11; Accepted Mar This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide nutrition advice aimed at promoting healthy dietary choices for life-long health and reducing risk of chronic diseases. Current Status and Errors of Omission Criteria for protein requirements are based on providing the minimum essential amino acids EAA necessary as building blocks for new protein structures [ 5 ]. New knowledge about protein Protein and amino acids contribute to multiple metabolic roles beyond simple substrates for protein synthesis.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Protein, weight management, and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr. Role of dietary protein in the sarcopenia of aging. Amount and type of protein influences bone health. Protein in optimal health: heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
The protein and amino acids. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. The underappreciated role of muscle in health and disease. Regulation of protein synthesis by branched-chain amino acids.
The role of leucine in weight loss diets and glucose homeostasis. J Nutr. Energetics of obesity and weight control: does diet composition matter? J Am Diet Assoc. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations.
Eur J Clin Nutr. Dietary protein impact on glycemic control during weight loss. An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. Macronutrient intakes as determinants of dietary protein and amino acid adequacy. Basal muscle amino acid kinetics and protein synthesis in healthy young and older men.
The response of muscle protein anabolism to combined hyperaminoacidemia and glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia is impaired in the elderly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. The need for indispensable amino acids: the concept of the anabolic drive. Diabetes Metab Rev. Protein pulse feeding improves protein retention in elderly women.
Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia. The time of day of food intake influences overall intake in humans. An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol. The role of leucine in the regulation of protein metabolism. The specificity of satiety: The influence of foods of different macronutrient content on the development of satiety. Physiol Behav.
Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. Protein importance of leucine in treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.
A moderate-protein diet produces sustained weight loss and long-term changes in body composition and blood lipids in obese adults. A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. Dietary protein and exercise have additive effects on body composition during weight loss in adult women. Studies in calcium metabolism.
The calciuretic effect of dietary protein. Dietary protein affects intestinal calcium absorption. The metabolic syndrome: is this diagnosis necessary?
How Much Protein Do You Need After 50?
With an ageing population, dietary approaches to promote health and independence later in life are needed. In part, this can be achieved by maintaining muscle mass and strength as people age. New evidence suggests that current dietary recommendations for protein intake may be insufficient to achieve this goal and that individuals might benefit by increasing their intake and frequency of consumption of high-quality protein.
However, the environmental effects of increasing animal-protein production are a concern, and alternative, more sustainable protein sources should be considered. Protein is known to be more satiating than other macronutrients, and it is unclear whether diets high in plant proteins affect the appetite of older adults as they should be recommended for individuals at risk of malnutrition.
In the UK, it is projected that by the majority of the population will be aged 40 or older [ 1 ]. The considerable size of this cohort has seen increasing interest from policy officials in utilizing dietary guidance to maintain or improve their health and wellbeing to promote healthy ageing. Adequate intake of protein is one of the key nutritional factors to maintain independence, predominantly by preventing loss of muscle mass and strength sarcopenia , frailty and associated comorbidities in later life [ 2 , 3 , 4 ].
At present, the food sector is failing to identify and directly address the needs of this ageing population, with affordable, palatable and practical food solutions. It is debatable at what exact point in life muscles start to age.
Muscle strength is correlated with muscle mass and rapidly declines after the age of 50 [ 7 , 8 ]. The beginning of the fourth decade of life might therefore be interpreted as the time when muscle ageing process begins and for this reason it is the optimal time for implementing appropriate dietary changes, to prevent or delay the onset of sarcopenia.
Previous work has focused on identifying the optimal protein amount, timing and type of protein for sarcopenia prevention. A number of studies have found that intake exceeding the Recommended Daily Allowance RDA may be preferential in preserving muscle mass and functions in ageing adults [ 3 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ]. In addition, the pattern of protein consumption was suggested to be of greater importance than the total daily amount consumed [ 13 ], which will be discussed in the next section.
The evidence from these studies is however limited to investigating the effects of different types of animal proteins on muscle health [ 14 , 15 ], and the effects of plant proteins other than soy have not been adequately studied.
Plant-based nutrition has received much attention in the past decade [ 16 , 17 ]. The ever-growing demand for foods naturally rich in protein is part of an ecological debate around whether more sustainable sources should be encouraged [ 18 ]. The high proportion of animal-protein consumption in developed countries [ 19 ] raises both health and environmental concerns. Firstly, dietary patterns characterised by a high intake of animal protein have been associated with increased risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease mortality and some cancers [ 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 ].
However, it has to be stressed, that dietary patterns describe diet as a whole and it cannot be concluded that all components e. Secondly, animal-protein consumption requires large areas of dedicated land, water, nitrogen, and fossil energy for production and transportation [ 24 , 25 ].
The result is the emission of large amounts of greenhouse gases GHG [ 26 ]. The health benefits of plant-proteins as a more sustainable alternative in sarcopenia prevention have yet to be investigated extensively. Furthermore, the effects of plant proteins on muscle protein synthesis MPS were scarcely investigated in the context of appetite, a significant risk factor for malnutrition and subsequent loss of muscle tissue [ 27 ].
It has not been yet established whether plant proteins trigger similar appetite-related responses in underweight, normal weight and overweight individuals while they age. Addressing this research gap is crucial to assess whether nutritional strategies can maximise the nutritional status of an ageing adult and whether increasing protein consumption chronically reduces energy intake, thereby increasing the risk of malnutrition.
More generally, insight of this kind may help consumers to make healthy food choices and will inform the development of nutritionally balanced products that promote healthy ageing. The purpose of this review is threefold: 1 to summarise evidence regarding the optimal quantity and daily distribution of protein intake in ageing adults; 2 to present current knowledge about sustainable protein intake in the context of appetite control; and 3 to identify the areas for future research and challenges in introducing novel food solutions to consumers.
These recommendations are derived as a minimum amount to maintain nitrogen balance and are not optimised for physical activity level PAL. Individuals with low PAL have decreased rates of nitrogen retention and therefore in order to maintain muscle tissue have increased protein requirements in comparison to those who are active [ 31 ].
Considering that physical activity decreases with age [ 32 ], this is an important factor when protein needs are evaluated. Furthermore, the body of an ageing adult undergoes multiple physiological changes which alter protein utilisation, and thus requirements, i.
The adequacy of current protein recommendations has also been challenged because of potential methodological pitfalls. First, the nitrogen-balance method used in the majority of pooled studies may not be accurate, possibly due to unaccounted routes of nitrogen input and output [ 3 , 33 ]. A second limitation is that nitrogen-balance studies must be carried out in a controlled, clinical environment, hence the protein requirement assessment is relatively short-term [ 33 ].
Data regarding long-term evaluations of protein needs in ageing adults, with a use of novel, more accurate assessment techniques, is scarce and is identified as an academic research priority [ 34 , 35 ].
A further increase is recommended for individuals with acute or chronic illnesses 1. Since it has been estimated that 0. One of the longest week interventional studies to date revealed that in adults aged 55—77, ingestion of 0. The link between protein consumption at the RDA level and adverse health outcomes was also confirmed in longitudinal observational studies.
As discovered by Houston and others [ 37 ], older adults 70—79 years whose daily protein intake was 1. In summary, protein requirements vary on an individual basis and depend on various factors, such as age, health status and PAL. These factors are not reflected in current recommendations for the general population. Therefore, an increase in intake of dietary protein beginning around midlife merits further research. Apart from the total daily intake, per-meal protein quantity and daily frequency of protein ingestion have also been shown to play an important role in preserving muscle mass and function.
This approximate quantity is thought to be sufficient, both for younger and healthy older adults [ 39 ]. Moore and colleagues [ 43 ] investigated the per-meal threshold in relation to body weight and age. In this study, protein utilisation plateaued after the ingestion of 0. The estimated per-meal threshold after consuming a plant protein-rich meal is still unknown, particularly in ageing adults [ 44 ].
Some studies argue that consuming a higher dose of protein on one daily occasion pulse feeding can stimulate a higher anabolic response than smaller doses across multiple meals [ 45 , 46 , 47 ]. However, none of these four meals contained the required bolus of 25—30 g protein per serving, which could be a potential cause why the spread pattern treatment was less effective.
However, since participants in these studies were recruited from very old mean age In most Western societies, the daily pattern of dietary protein ingestion is skewed regardless of age or sex, with the lowest amount of protein being consumed in the morning and the greatest in the evening meal [ 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 ]. As shown in a British cohort study that has followed the dietary intake of adults aged 36 years for 17 years, the protein content of meals has gradually shifted toward the evening [ 48 ].
Although these results refer to years —, evidence suggests, that this trend has been sustained because it is mirrored in data collected more recently from other countries. Data from U. However, the amount of protein consumed in each meal was lower in both sexes, in comparison to the younger age group [ 49 ].
Regarding the population of the very old community-dwelling adults, the pattern of daily protein distribution appears to peak at mid-day. The commonly observed uneven pattern of protein ingestion in older adults suggests a potential risk of insufficient stimulation of MPS, even when RDA on a daily basis is being met. As suggested by Bollwein and others [ 13 ], the protein distribution at older age is of higher importance than the total daily amount per se.
In this study, the recommendation of 0. No differences were observed between frailty status and daily protein intake. However, those with a more uneven distribution were more likely to be classified as frail, characterised by lower walking speed and higher exhaustion [ 13 ]. Ingestion of a high-protein meal before sleep has been shown to increase overnight MPS [ 53 ], therefore this dietary habit should be sustained.
In addition, to stimulate h MPS, enriching the content of remaining meals with high-quality protein should be strongly encouraged, to ensure a sufficient dose of protein in each meal. Although discussed recommendations regarding optimal protein quantity and distribution seem to be well supported, it has to be noted that most studies have analysed outcomes related solely to animal proteins and muscle health, omitting the accompanying effects of protein ingestion on appetite.
Placing these findings in this context would provide valuable insight and guidance for adults who also need to limit or increase their daily energy intake in order to optimise nutritional status. Dietary proteins are found in animal-based foods, plant-based foods, and alternative sources such as algae, bacteria, and fungi mycoproteins.
In contrast, the main source of protein in the British diet is animal-based, contributing to nearly two thirds of total daily protein intake [ 54 ]. However, being the only nationally representative data regarding protein sources in the British diet, it was decided that it is worth the inclusion. Alternative protein sources are not commonly consumed in Western countries. The exception is mycoproteins—primarily in the form of vegetarian meat substitutes—which have increased in popularity over the last three decades, and with a trend that is expected to continue in the future [ 17 ].
However, the future profitability and consumer acceptance of this product remains unclear [ 55 ]. There is debate about the optimal source of protein and numerous quality assessment measures have been proposed [ 56 ]. Animal proteins have higher PDCAA scores than plants, suggesting greater efficiency in muscle anabolic processes [ 58 ]. For example, proteins found in milk, whey, egg, casein and beef have the highest score 1. However, proteins do not occur in foods in isolation and the entire food matrix should to be considered when health benefits are evaluated [ 56 ].
Apart from protein, animal-based foods provide heme-iron, cholecalciferol, docosahexaenoic acid DHA , vitamin B12, creatine, taurine, carnosine and conjugated linoleic acid CLA ; all compounds not present in plant-based foods [ 60 ].
Thus, moderate consumption of high-quality unprocessed animal-based foods should not be discouraged entirely. On the other hand, foods of animal origin contain saturated fatty acids SFA. Although unfavourable effects of SFA on health should not be generalised to all animal-originated products e. Plant proteins are often described as incomplete, due to the insufficient amounts of all nine essential amino acids [ 59 ]. Although protein content and amino acid composition vary between plant species, in general, protein found in legumes are limited in methionine and cysteine; cereals lysine, tryptophan ; vegetables, nuts and seeds methionine, cysteine, lysine, threonine ; seaweed histidine, lysine [ 65 ].
In addition, the digestibility and bioavailability of plant proteins is lower than those from animal sources, due to the high content of dietary fibre and plant bio-compounds also called phytochemicals , e. Interestingly, regarded in the past as anti-nutritional compounds, phytochemicals are being now increasingly associated with beneficial effects, e. Moreover, the amino acid which has been shown to play an important role in MPS is leucine [ 68 ].
However, some plants are still a relatively good source, if consumed in larger volumes and these include: dried seaweed 4. As suggested by other authors, solutions to maximise essential amino-acids content of plant foods include: amino-acid complementation consuming cereals and pulses in one meal , consuming higher amounts of plant-based products on a more frequent basis or enhancing the nutritional quality of crops through genetic engineering [ 44 , 58 , 72 ].
More studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of plant proteins in the prevention of muscle mass and strength loss. Sources other than soy and foods or diets that are complementary in terms of amino-acid composition e.
Both projected changes pose serious challenges to a food-supply system that will need to meet the nutritional needs of both an ageing and expanding population. Protein is the macronutrient most extensively discussed in the context of feeding the world for two reasons. Firstly, it plays a critical role in preventing protein-energy malnutrition PEM and promotes healthy muscle ageing.
Exploring alternative protein sources and transitioning towards more sustainable, plant-based diets, has been a recent research priority [ 16 , 17 , 24 ]. It has been well documented that plant-based diets can lower the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and mortality, as well as prevent specific types of cancer [ 75 , 76 , 77 ].
However, a rapid transformation to a vegetarian diet is unlikely to be feasible on the global scale, and it is still debatable whether it is optimal for human health, e. Therefore, new guidelines are being developed, promoting a mixed, yet more sustainable dietary pattern, with increased intake of plant foods and reduced intake of meat [ 79 ].
Currently, food consumption in the UK deviates markedly from these dietary recommendations.